Chapter 64 Immunoprophylaxis

  1. Vilar G, Tulla-Puche J, Albericio F: Polymers and drug delivery systems. Curr Drug Deliv 9:367–394, 2012. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Meeusen EN, Walker J, Peters A, et al: Current status of veterinary vaccines. Clin Microbiol Rev 20:489–510, table, 2007. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Brown F: From Jenner to genes: the next generation of virus vaccines. Biochem Soc Symp 53:75–84, 1987. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Cox RJ, Brokstad KA, Ogra P: Influenza virus: immunity and vaccination strategies. Comparison of the immune response to inactivated and live, attenuated influenza vaccines. Scand J Immunol 59(1):1–15, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Heldens JG, Pouwels HG, Derks CG, et al: The first safe inactivated equine influenza vaccine formulation adjuvanted with ISCOM-Matrix that closes the immunity gap. Vaccine 27:5530–5537, 2009. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Heldens JG, Pouwels HG, Derks CG, et al: Duration of immunity induced by an equine influenza and tetanus combination vaccine formulation adjuvanted with ISCOM-Matrix. Vaccine 28:6989–6996, 2010. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Gildea S, Arkins S, Walsh C, et al: A comparison of antibody responses to commercial equine influenza vaccines following primary vaccination of Thoroughbred weanlings—a randomised blind study. Vaccine 29:9214–9223, 2011. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Paillot R, Prowse L: ISCOM-matrix-based equine influenza (EIV) vaccine stimulates cell-mediated immunity in the horse. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 145:516–521, 2012. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Fu Q, Wei Z, Chen Y, et al: Identification of a surface protective antigen, CSP of Streptococcus equi ssp. Zooepidemicus. Vaccine 31:1400–1405, 2013. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Babiuk LA, van Drunen Littel H, Babiuk SL: Immunization of animals: from DNA to the dinner plate. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 72(1–2):189–202, 1999. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Wolff JA, Malone RW, Williams P, et al: Direct gene transfer into mouse muscle in vivo. Science 247(4949, pt 1):1465–1468, 1990. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Ault A, Zajac AM, Kong WP, et al: Immunogenicity and clinical protection against equine influenza by DNA vaccination of ponies. Vaccine 30:3965–3974, 2012. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Babiuk LA: Broadening the approaches to developing more effective vaccines. Vaccine 17(13–14):1587–1595, 1999. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Terpstra C, Kroese AH: Potency control of modified live viral vaccines for veterinary use. Vaccine 14(6):570–575, 1996. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Desmettre P: Diagnosis and prevention of equine infectious diseases: present status, potential, and challenges for the future. Adv Vet Med 41:359–377, 1999. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Breathnach CC, Rudersdorf R, Lunn DP: Use of recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara viral vectors for equine influenza vaccination. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 98(3–4):127–136, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Breathnach CC, Clark HJ, Clark RC, et al: Immunization with recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (rMVA) constructs encoding the HA or NP gene protects ponies from equine influenza virus challenge. Vaccine 24(8):1180–1190, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Plotkin SA, Cadoz M, Meignier B, et al: The safety and use of canarypox vectored vaccines. Dev Biol Stand 84:165–170, 1995. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Edlund Toulemonde C, Daly J, Sindle T, et al: Efficacy of a recombinant equine influenza vaccine against challenge with an American lineage H3N8 influenza virus responsible for the 2003 outbreak in the United Kingdom. Vet Rec 156(12):367–371, 2005. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Minke JM, Siger L, Karaca K, et al: Recombinant canary poxvirus vaccine carrying the prM/E genes of West Nile virus protects horses against a West Nile virus-mosquito challenge. Arch Virol Suppl (18):221–230, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Arroyo J, Miller C, Catalan J, et al: ChimeriVax-West Nile virus live-attenuated vaccine: preclinical evaluation of safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy. J Virol 78(22):12497–12507, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Long MT, Gibb EP, Mellencamp MW, et al: Efficacy, duration, and onset of immunogenicity of a West Nile virus vaccine, live Flavivirus chimera, in horses with a clinical disease challenge model. Equine Vet J 39:491–497, 2007. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Singh M, O'Hagan DT: Recent advances in veterinary vaccine adjuvants. Int J Parasitol 33(5–6):469–478, 2003. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Spickler AR, Roth JA: Adjuvants in veterinary vaccines: modes of action and adverse effects. J Vet Intern Med 17(3):273–281, 2003. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Meyer EK: Vaccine-associated adverse events. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 31(3):493–514, 2001. PUBMED Abstract
    25a. Kannegieter NJ, Schaaf KL, Lovell DK, et al: Myofibroblastic fibrosarcoma with multifocal osseous metaplasia at the site of equine influenza vaccination. Aust Vet J 88:132–136, 2010. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Horohov DW, Lunn DP, Townsend HG, et al: Equine vaccination. J Vet Intern Med 14(2):221–222, 2000. PUBMED Abstract
  27. Lunn DP, Townsend HG: Equine vaccination. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 16(1):199–226, 2000. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Gershwin LJ, Netherwood KA, Norris MS, et al: Equine IgE responses to non-viral vaccine components. Vaccine 30:7615–7620, 2012. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Timoney PJ, McCollum WH: Equine viral arteritis. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 9(2):295–309, 1993. PUBMED Abstract
  30. Giguere S, Gaskin JM, Miller C, et al: Evaluation of a commercially available hyperimmune plasma product for prevention of naturally acquired pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi in foals. J Am Vet Med Assoc 220(1):59–63, 2002. PUBMED Abstract
  31. Spier SJ, Lavoie JP, Cullor JS, et al: Protection against clinical endotoxemia in horses by using plasma containing antibody to an Rc mutant E. coli (J5). Circ Shock 28(3):235–248, 1989. PUBMED Abstract
  32. Sheoran AS, Timoney JF, Holmes MA, et al: Immunoglobulin isotypes in sera and nasal mucosal secretions and their neonatal transfer and distribution in horses. Am J Vet Res 61(9):1099–1105, 2000. PUBMED Abstract
  33. Galan JE, Timoney JF, Lengemann FW: Passive transfer of mucosal antibody to Streptococcus equi in the foal. Infect Immun 54(1):202–206, 1986. PUBMED Abstract
  34. Gibbs EP, Wilson JH, All BP III: Studies on passive immunity and the vaccination of foals against eastern equine encephalitis in Florida. In Equine Infectious Diseases V: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference, Lexington, 1988, University Press of Kentucky.
  35. Hullinger PJ, Wilson WD, Rossitto PV, et al: Passive transfer, rate of decay, and protein specificity of antibodies against equine arteritis virus in horses from a Standardbred herd with high seroprevalence. J Am Vet Med Assoc 213(6):839–842, 1998. PUBMED Abstract
  36. Van Maanen C, Bruin G, de Boer-Luijtze E, et al: Interference of maternal antibodies with the immune response of foals after vaccination against equine influenza. Vet Q 14(1):13–17, 1992. PUBMED Abstract
  37. Van Maanen C, Flore PH, Minkie J, Bruin G: Immune response of foals after vaccination against EHV-1/EHV-4 and persistence of maternal antibodies. In Equine Infectious Diseases VII: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference, 1994, Tokyo, Newmarket, England, 1994, R&W Publications, p 351.
  38. Van Oirschot JT, Bruin G, de Boer-Luytze E, et al: Maternal antibodies against equine influenza virus in foals and their interference with vaccination. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B 38(5):391–396, 1991. PUBMED Abstract
  39. Ferguson JA, Reeves WC, Hardy JL: Studies on immunity to alphaviruses in foals. Am J Vet Res 40(1):5–10, 1979. PUBMED Abstract
  40. Wilson WD, Mihalyi JE, Hussey S, et al: Passive transfer of maternal immunoglobulin isotype antibodies against tetanus and influenza and their effect on the response of foals to vaccination. Equine Vet J 33(7):644–650, 2001. PUBMED Abstract
  41. Wilson WD: Strategies for vaccinating mares, foals, and weanlings. Presented at 51st Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, 2005, Seattle.
  42. Deleted in proof.
  43. Cullinane A, Weld J, Osborne M, et al: Field studies on equine influenza vaccination regimes in thoroughbred foals and yearlings. Vet J 161(2):174–185, 2001. PUBMED Abstract
  44. Conboy HS, Berry DB, Fallon EH, et al: Failure of foal seroconversion following equine influenza vaccination. Presented at 43rd Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, 1997, Phoenix, AZ.
  45. Holland RE, Conboy HS, Berry DB, et al: Age dependence on foal vaccination for equine influenza: new evidence from the USA. In Equine Infectious Diseases VIII: Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference, Newmarket, England, 1999, R&W Publications, p 547.
  46. Wilson JH, et al: Investigation of vaccine-induced tolerance to eastern equine encephalitis virus in foals. Presented at 41st Annual Conference of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, 1995, Lexington, KY.
  47. Holznagel DL, Hussey S, Mihalyi JE, et al: Onset of immunoglobulin production in foals. Equine Vet J 35(6):620–622, 2003. PUBMED Abstract
  48. Burki F, Nowotny N, Rossmanith W, et al: Training of the immune system of foals against ERP virus infections by frequent vaccination with presently available commercial vaccines. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr 96(4):162–165, 1989. PUBMED Abstract
  49. Breathnach CC, et al: Problems associated with vaccination of foals against equine herpesvirus-4 and the role of anti-EHV-4 maternal antibodies. In Equine Infectious Diseases VIII: Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference, Newmarket, England, 1999, R&W Publications.
  50. Wilson WD: Vaccination programs for foals and weanlings. Presented at 45th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, 1999.
  51. Wilson WD, Rossdale PD: Effect of age on the serological responses of Thoroughbred foals to vaccination with an inactivated EHV-1/EHV-4 vaccine. In Equine Infectious Diseases VIII: Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference, Newmarket, England, 1999, R&W Publications.
  52. Heldens JG, Kersten AJ, Weststrate MW, et al: Duration of immunity induced by an adjuvanted and inactivated equine influenza, tetanus and equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 combination vaccine. Vet Q 23(4):210–217, 2001. PUBMED Abstract
  53. Hullinger PJ, Wilson WD, Rossitto PV, et al: Passive transfer, rate of decay, and protein specificity of antibodies against equine arteritis virus in horses from a Standardbred herd with high seroprevalence. J Am Vet Med Assoc 213:839–842, 1998. PUBMED Abstract
  54. Liefman CE: Active immunisation of horses against tetanus including the booster dose and its application. Aust Vet J 57(2):57–60, 1981. PUBMED Abstract
  55. Jansen BC, Knoetze PC: The immune response of horses to tetanus toxoid. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 46(4):211–216, 1979. PUBMED Abstract
  56. Heinig A: Experimentelle untersuchungen uber den eintritt der immunitat nach einmaliger tetanue-schutzimpfung. Arch Exp Vet Med 8:394–403, 1954.
  57. Lohrer J, Radvila P: Active tetanus protection in the horses and the duration of immunity. Schw Arch Tierheikd 112:307–314, 1970. PUBMED Abstract
  58. Green SL, Little CB, Baird JD, et al: Tetanus in the horse: a review of 20 cases (1970 to 1990). J Vet Intern Med 8(2):128–132, 1994. PUBMED Abstract
  59. Liefman CE: Combined active-passive immunisation of horses against tetanus. Aust Vet J 56:119–122, 1980. PUBMED Abstract
  60. Panciera RJ: Serum hepatitis in the horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 155(2):408–410, 1969. PUBMED Abstract
  61. Messer NT, 4th., Johnson PJ: Idiopathic acute hepatic disease in horses: 12 cases (1982–1992). J Am Vet Med Assoc 204(12):1934–1937, 1994. PUBMED Abstract
  62. Hays MB: Definitive efficacy and safety testing for equine encephalomyelitis vaccine. J Am Vet Med Assoc 155(2):374–376, 1969. PUBMED Abstract
  63. Barber TL, Walton TE, Lewis KJ: Efficacy of trivalent inactivated encephalomyelitis virus vaccine in horses. Am J Vet Res 39(4):621–625, 1978. PUBMED Abstract
  64. Eisner RJ, Nusbaum SR: A study to determine the optimum time for vaccination of foals against eastern and western encephalitis viruses. In Proceedings of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, 1979.
  65. Liu IK: Duration of maternally derived antibodies in neonatal foals. Mod Vet Pract 67:454–456, 1986.
  66. Siger L, Bowen RA, Karaca K, et al: Assessment of the efficacy of a single dose of a recombinant vaccine against West Nile virus in response to natural challenge with West Nile virus–infected mosquitoes in horses. Am J Vet Res 65(11):1459–1462, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  67. Vest DJ, et al: Evaluation of administration of West Nile virus vaccine to pregnant broodmares. J Am Vet Med Assoc 225(12):1894–1897, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  68. Morley PS, Townsend HG, Bogdan JR, et al: Risk factors for disease associated with influenza virus infections during three epidemics in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 216(4):545–550, 2000. PUBMED Abstract
  69. Wilson WD: Equine influenza. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 9:257–282, 1993. PUBMED Abstract
  70. Morley PS, Townsend HG, Bogdan JR, et al: Efficacy of a commercial vaccine for preventing disease caused by influenza virus infection in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 215(1):61–66, 1999. PUBMED Abstract
  71. Nelson KM, Schram BR, McGregor MW, et al: Local and systemic isotype-specific antibody responses to equine influenza virus infection versus conventional vaccination. Vaccine 16(13):1306–1313, 1998. PUBMED Abstract
  72. Hannant D, Mumford JA: Cell mediated immune responses in ponies following infection with equine influenza virus (H3N8): the influence of induction culture conditions on the properties of cytotoxic effector cells. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 21(3–4):327–337, 1989. PUBMED Abstract
  73. Hannant D, Jessett DM, O'Neill T, et al: Antibody isotype responses in the serum and respiratory tract to primary and secondary infections with equine influenza virus (H3N8). Vet Microbiol 19(4):293–303, 1989. PUBMED Abstract
  74. Hannant D, Mumford JA, Jessett DM: Duration of circulating antibody and immunity following infection with equine influenza virus. Vet Rec 122:125–128, 1988. PUBMED Abstract
  75. Van Maanen C, Cullinane A: Equine influenza virus infections: an update. Vet Q 24(2):79–94, 2002. PUBMED Abstract
  76. Hannant D, Jesset DM, O'Neill T, et al: Cellular immune responses stimulated by inactivated virus vaccines and infection with equine influenza virus (H3N8). In Equine Infectious Diseases VII: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference, 1994, Tokyo, Newmarket, England, 1994, R&W Publications.
  77. Daly JM, Newton JR, Mumford JA: Current perspectives on control of equine influenza. Vet Res 35(4):411–423, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  78. Chambers TM, Holland RE, Tudor LR, et al: A new modified live equine influenza virus vaccine: phenotypic stability, restricted spread and efficacy against heterologous virus challenge. Equine Vet J 33(7):630–636, 2001. PUBMED Abstract
  79. Townsend HG, Penner SJ, Watts TC, et al: Efficacy of a cold-adapted, intranasal, equine influenza vaccine: challenge trials. Equine Vet J 33(7):637–643, 2001. PUBMED Abstract
  80. Crouch CF, Daly J, Hannant D, et al: Immune responses and protective efficacy in ponies immunised with an equine influenza ISCOM vaccine containing an “American lineage” H3N8 virus. Vaccine 23(3):418–425, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  81. Wood JM, Mumford J, Folkers C, et al: Studies with inactivated equine influenza vaccine. 1. Serological responses of ponies to graded doses of vaccine. J Hyg (Lond) 90(3):371–384, 1983. PUBMED Abstract
  82. Townsend HGG, et al: Measuring serum antibody as a method of predicting infection and disease in horses during outbreaks of influenza. In Equine Infectious Diseases VIII: Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference, 1999, Newmarket, England, 1999, R&W Publications.
  83. Mumford JA, Wood J: Establishing an acceptability threshold for equine influenza vaccines. Dev Biol Stand 79:137–146, 1992. PUBMED Abstract
  84. Wood JM, Gaines-Das RE, Taylor J, et al: Comparison of influenza serological techniques by international collaborative study. Vaccine 12(2):167–174, 1994. PUBMED Abstract
  85. Newton JR, Wood JL, Jessett D, et al: “Cross-protection” and “cross-reaction” with equine influenza vaccines. Vet Rec 145(22):647, 1999. PUBMED Abstract
  86. Newton JR, Townsend HG, Wood JL, et al: Immunity to equine influenza: relationship of vaccine-induced antibody in young Thoroughbred racehorses to protection against field infection with influenza A/equine-2 viruses (H3N8). Equine Vet J 32(1):65–74, 2000. PUBMED Abstract
  87. Lewis NS, Daly JM, Russell CA, et al: Antigenic and genetic evolution of equine influenza A (H3N8) virus from 1968 to 2007. J Virol 85:12742–12749, 2011. PUBMED Abstract
  88. Mumford J, Wood J: WHO/OIE meeting: consultation on newly emerging strains of equine influenza. Vaccine 11(11):1172–1175, 1993. PUBMED Abstract
  89. Mumford J: The diagnosis and control of equine influenza. Presented at 36th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, 1990.
  90. Mumford J: Progress in the control of influenza. In Plowright W, Rossdale PD, Wade JF, editors: Equine Infectious Diseases VI: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference, Newmarket, England, 1991, R&W Publications.
  91. Mumford EL, Traub-Dargatz JL, Carman J, et al: Occurrence of infectious upper respiratory tract disease and response to vaccination in horses on six sentinel premises in northern Colorado. Equine Vet J 35(1):72–77, 2003. PUBMED Abstract
  92. Newton JR: Equine influenza vaccine performance: still learning lessons from the field. Vet J 161(2):107–109, 2001. PUBMED Abstract
  93. Townsend HGG: Current and new technologies for vaccines and vaccination decisions. Presented at 51st Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, 2005, Seattle.
  94. Lunn DP, Hussey S, Sebing R, et al: Safety, efficacy, and immunogenicity of a modified-live equine influenza virus vaccine in ponies after induction of exercise-induced immunosuppression. J Am Vet Med Assoc 218(6):900–906, 2001. PUBMED Abstract
  95. Townsend HGG, Lunn DP, Bogdan J: Comparative efficacy of commercial vaccines in naive horses: serologic responses and protection following influenza challenge. Presented at 49th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, 2003.
  96. Cullinane AA: Updating equine influenza strains in a combined equine influenza and herpesvirus vaccine. Vet J 167(2):118–120, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  97. Newton JR, Lakhani KH, Wood JL, et al: Risk factors for equine influenza serum antibody titres in young Thoroughbred racehorses given an inactivated vaccine. Prev Vet Med 46(2):129–141, 2000. PUBMED Abstract
  98. Newton JR, Verheyen K, Wood JL, et al: Equine influenza in the United Kingdom in 1998. Vet Rec 145(16):449–452, 1999. PUBMED Abstract
  99. Liu IK, Pascoe DR, Chang LW, et al: Duration of maternally derived antibodies against equine influenza in newborn foals. Am J Vet Res 46(10):2078–2080, 1985. PUBMED Abstract
  100. Smith BP: Influenza in foals. J Am Vet Med Assoc 174(3):289–290, 1979. PUBMED Abstract
  101. Wilson WD, Robinson D: Field safety of a modified-live, cold-adapted intranasal equine influenza vaccine (Heska Flu Avert I.N. vaccine) in horses. J Equine Vet Sci 20(1):8–10, 2000.
  102. Wilson WD: Intranasal vaccine for equine influenza: roundtable discussion. Part 3. Equine Pract 22(3):18–24, 2000.
  103. Minke JM, Toulemonde CE, Dinic S, et al: Effective priming of foals born to immune dams against influenza by a canarypox-vectored recombinant influenza H3N8 vaccine. J Comp Pathol 137(Suppl 1):S76–S80, 2007. PUBMED Abstract
  104. El-Hage CM, Savage CJ, Minke JM, et al: Accelerated vaccination schedule provides protective levels of antibody and complete herd immunity to equine influenza. Equine Vet J 45:235–239, 2013. PUBMED Abstract
  105. Lunn DP, Soboll G, Schram BR, et al: Antibody responses to DNA vaccination of horses using the influenza virus hemagglutinin gene. Vaccine 17(18):2245–2258, 1999. PUBMED Abstract
  106. Hannant D: Respiratory viral diseases of horses: overview. Presented at World Equine Airway Symposium, 1998, Guelph, Ontario, Lifelearn.
  107. Allen GP: Epidemic disease caused by equine herpesvirus-1: recommendations for prevention and control. Equine Vet Educ 14(3):136–142, 2002.
  108. Foote CE, Love DN, Gilkerson JR, et al: Detection of EHV-1 and EHV-4 DNA in unweaned Thoroughbred foals from vaccinated mares on a large stud farm. Equine Vet J 36(4):341–345, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  109. Foote CE, Gilkerson JR, Whalley JM, et al: Seroprevalence of equine herpesvirus 1 in mares and foals on a large Hunter Valley stud farm in years pre- and postvaccination. Aust Vet J 81(5):283–288, 2003. PUBMED Abstract
  110. Ostlund EN: The equine herpesviruses. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 9:283–294, 1993. PUBMED Abstract
  111. Patel JR, Bateman H, Williams J, et al: Derivation and characterisation of a live equid herpes virus-1 (EHV-1) vaccine to protect against abortion and respiratory disease due to EHV-1. Vet Microbiol 91(1):23–39, 2003. PUBMED Abstract
  112. Allen GP, Yeargan MR, Turtinen LW, et al: A new field strain of equine abortion virus (equine herpesvirus-1) among Kentucky horses. Am J Vet Res 46:138–140, 1985. PUBMED Abstract
  113. Smith PM, Kahan SM, Rorex CB, et al: Expression of the full-length form of gp2 of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) completely restores respiratory virulence to the attenuated EHV-1 strain KyA in CBA mice. J Virol 79(8):5105–5115, 2005. PUBMED Abstract
  114. Patel JR, Földi J, Bateman H, et al: Equid herpesvirus (EHV-1) live vaccine strain C147: efficacy against respiratory diseases following EHV types 1 and 4 challenges. Vet Microbiol 92(1/2):1–17, 2003. PUBMED Abstract
  115. Heldens JG, Hannant D, Cullinane AA, et al: Clinical and virological evaluation of the efficacy of an inactivated EHV1 and EHV4 whole virus vaccine (Duvaxyn EHV1,4): vaccination/challenge experiments in foals and pregnant mares. Vaccine 19(30):4307–4317, 2001. PUBMED Abstract
  116. Kendrick JW, Stevenson W: Immunity to equine herpesvirus 1 infection in foals during the first year of life. J Reprod Fertil Suppl (27):615–618, 1979. PUBMED Abstract
  117. Dutta SK, Shipley WD: Immunity and the level of neutralization antibodies in foals and mares vaccinated with a modified live-virus rhinopneumonitis vaccine. Am J Vet Res 36(4, pt 1):445–448, 1975. PUBMED Abstract
  118. Neely DP, Hawkins DL: A two-year study of the clinical and serologic responses of horses to a modified live-virus equine rhinopneumonitis vaccine. J Equine Med Surg 2:532–540, 1978.
  119. Ellis JA, Steeves E, Wright AK, et al: Cell-mediated cytolysis of equine herpesvirus-infected cells by leukocytes from young vaccinated horses. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 57(3–4):201–214, 1997. PUBMED Abstract
  120. Foote CE, Love DN, Gilkerson JR, et al: Serological responses of mares and weanlings following vaccination with an inactivated whole virus equine herpesvirus 1 and equine herpesvirus 4 vaccine. Vet Microbiol 88(1):13–25, 2002. PUBMED Abstract
  121. Gilkerson JR, Whalley JM, Drummer HE, et al: Epidemiology of EHV-1 and EHV-4 in the mare and foal populations on a Hunter Valley stud farm: are mares the source of EHV-1 for unweaned foals. Vet Microbiol 68(1/2):27–34, 1999. PUBMED Abstract
  122. Holmes MA, Townsend HG, Kohler AK, et al: Immune responses to commercial equine vaccines against equine herpesvirus-1, equine influenza virus, eastern equine encephalomyelitis, and tetanus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 111:67–80, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  123. Townsend HGG: The role of vaccines and their efficacy in the control of infectious respiratory disease of the horse. Presented at 46th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, 2000, San Antonio, TX.
  124. Goodman LB, Wagner B, Flaminio MJ, et al: Comparison of the efficacy of inactivated combination and modified-live virus vaccines against challenge infection with neuropathogenic equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1). Vaccine 24:3636–3645, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  125. Edington N, Smyth B, Griffiths L: The role of endothelial cell infection in the endometrium, placenta and foetus of equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) abortions. J Comp Pathol 104:379–387, 1991. PUBMED Abstract
  126. Edington N, Bridges CG, Patel JR: Endothelial cell infection and thrombosis in paralysis caused by equid herpesvirus-1: equine stroke. Arch Virol 90:111–124, 1986. PUBMED Abstract
  127. Goehring LS, Wagner B, Bigbie R, et al: Control of EHV-1 viremia and nasal shedding by commercial vaccines. Vaccine 5203–5211, 2010. PUBMED Abstract
  128. Lunn DP, Sellers AD, Goehring LS, et al: Protection against EHV-1 challenge by inactivated vaccines. In Proceedings of the 57th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, San Antonio, TX, 2011, p 322.
  129. Patel JR, Didlick S, Bateman H: Efficacy of a live equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) strain C147 vaccine in foals with maternally-derived antibody: protection against EHV-1 infection. Equine Vet J 36(5):447–451, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  130. Kydd JH, Slater J, Osterrieder N, et al: Report of the Second Havemeyer EHV-1 Workshop, Steamboat Springs, CO, September 2008. Equine Vet J 42:572–575, 2010. PUBMED Abstract
  131. Hamlen HJ, Timoney JF, Bell RJ: Epidemiologic and immunologic characteristics of Streptococcus equi infection in foals. J Am Vet Med Assoc 204:768–775, 1994. PUBMED Abstract
  132. Sheoran AS, Sponseller BT, Holmes MA, et al: Serum and mucosal antibody isotype responses to M-like protein (SeM) of Streptococcus equi in convalescent and vaccinated horses. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 59(3–4):239–251, 1997. PUBMED Abstract
  133. Flock M, Jacobsson K, Frykberg L, et al: Recombinant Streptococcus equi proteins protect mice in challenge experiments and induce immune response in horses. Infect Immun 72(6):3228–3236, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  134. Timoney JF: Strangles. Res Vet Sci 54(2):256–258, 1993. PUBMED Abstract
  135. Walker JA, Timoney JF: Construction of a stable non-mucoid deletion mutant of the Streptococcus equi Pinnacle vaccine strain. Vet Microbiol 89(4):311–321, 2002. PUBMED Abstract
  136. Sweeney CR, Timoney JF, Newton JR, et al: Streptococcus equi infections in horses: guidelines for treatment, control, and prevention of strangles. J Vet Intern Med 19(1):123–134, 2005. PUBMED Abstract
  137. Hoffman AM, Staempfli HR, Prescott JF, et al: Field evaluation of a commercial M-protein vaccine against Streptococcus equi infection in foals. Am J Vet Res 52(4):589–592, 1991. PUBMED Abstract
  138. Staempfli HR, Hoffman AM, Prescott JF, et al: Clinical evaluation of a commercial M-protein vaccine in naturally infected foals. Presented at 37th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, 1991, San Francisco. pp 259–262.
  139. Rief JS, George JL, Shideler RK: Recent developments in strangles research: observations on the carrier state and evaluation of a new vaccine. Presented at 27th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, 1981.
  140. Li W, et al: Efficacy of a modified live Streptococcus equi vaccine in an equine experimental model. In Equine Infectious Diseases VIII: Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference, Newmarket, England, 1999, R&W Publications.
  141. Boyle AG, Sweeney CR, Kristula M, et al: Factors associated with likelihood of horses having a high serum Streptococcus equi SeM-specific antibody titer. J Am Vet Med Assoc 235:973–977, 2009. PUBMED Abstract
  142. Tizard I, Ni Y: Use of serologic testing to assess immune status of companion animals. J Am Vet Med Assoc 213(1):54–60, 1998. PUBMED Abstract
  143. Green SL, Smith LL, Vernau W, et al: Rabies in horses: 21 cases (1970–1990). J Am Vet Med Assoc 200:1133–1137, 1992. PUBMED Abstract
  144. Madigan JE, Pusterla N: Ehrlichial diseases. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 16(3):487–499, 2000. PUBMED Abstract
  145. Wilson J, Pusterla N, Bengfort JM, et al: Incrimination of mayflies as a vector of Potomac horse fever in an outbreak in Minnesota. In Proceedings of the 51st Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, San Antonio, TX, 2011.
  146. Palmer JE: Potomac horse fever. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 9(2):399–410, 1993. PUBMED Abstract
  147. Rikihisa Y: Protection against murine Potomac horse fever by an inactivated Ehrlichia risticii vaccine. Vet Microbiol 27(3–4):339–350, 1991. PUBMED Abstract
  148. Ristic M, Holland CJ, Goetz TE: Evaluation of a vaccine for equine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Potomac horse fever). In Equine Infectious Diseases V: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference, Lexington, 1988, University Press of Kentucky.
  149. Sessions J, Dawson JE: Maryland field evaluation of the Potomac horse fever vaccine. Equine Pract 10(6):7–12, 1988.
  150. Atwill ER, Mohammed HO: Evaluation of vaccination of horses as a strategy to control equine monocytic ehrlichiosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 208(8):1290–1294, 1996. PUBMED Abstract
  151. Atwill ER, Mohammed HO: Benefit-cost analysis of vaccination of horses as a strategy to control equine monocytic ehrlichiosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 208(8):1295–1299, 1996. PUBMED Abstract
  152. Dutta SK, Vemulapalli R, Biswas B: Association of deficiency in antibody response to vaccine and heterogeneity of Ehrlichia risticii strains with Potomac horse fever vaccine failure in horses. J Clin Microbiol 36(2):506–512, 1998. PUBMED Abstract
  153. Swerczek TW: Toxicoinfectious botulism in foals and adult horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 176(3):217–220, 1980. PUBMED Abstract
  154. Whitlock RH, Buckley C: Botulism. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 13(1):107–128, 1997. PUBMED Abstract
  155. Wilkins PA, Palmer JE: Botulism in foals less than 6 months of age: 30 cases (1989–2002). J Vet Intern Med 17(5):702–707, 2003. PUBMED Abstract
  156. Thomas RJ, Rosenthal DV, Rogers RJ: A Clostridium botulinum type B vaccine for prevention of shaker foal syndrome. Aust Vet J 65(3):78–80, 1988. PUBMED Abstract
  157. Crane SA, Whitlock RH, Buckley C, et al: Clostridium botulinum type-B toxoid for vaccination of adult horses, pregnant mares, and foals: a study of vaccination protocols. Presented at 37th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, 1991, San Francisco. p 611.
  158. Newton JR, Wood JL, Castillo-Olivares FJ: Serological surveillance of equine viral arteritis in the United Kingdom since the outbreak in 1993. Vet Rec 145:511–516, 1999. PUBMED Abstract
  159. Timoney PJ, McCollum WH, Murphy TW, et al: The carrier state in equine arteritis virus infection in the stallion with specific emphasis on the venereal mode of virus transmission. J Reprod Fertil Suppl 35:95–102, 1987. PUBMED Abstract
  160. McCollum WH: Development of a modified virus strain and vaccine for equine viral arteritis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 155(2):318–322, 1969. PUBMED Abstract
  161. Balasuriya UB, Snijder EJ, Heidner HW, et al: Development and characterization of an infectious cDNA clone of the virulent Bucyrus strain of Equine arteritis virus. J Gen Virol 88:918–924, 2007. PUBMED Abstract
  162. Moore BD, Balasuriya UB, Nurton JP, et al: Differentiation of strains of equine arteritis virus of differing virulence to horses by growth in equine endothelial cells. Am J Vet Res 64:779–784, 2003. PUBMED Abstract
  163. Broaddus CC, Balasuriya UB, White JL, et al: Evaluation of the safety of vaccinating mares against equine viral arteritis during mid or late gestation or during the immediate postpartum period. J Am Vet Med Assoc 238:741–750, 2011. PUBMED Abstract
  164. Browning GF, Chalmers RM, Snodgrass DR, et al: The prevalence of enteric pathogens in diarrhoeic Thoroughbred foals in Britain and Ireland. Equine Vet J 23(6):405–409, 1991. PUBMED Abstract
  165. Browning GF, Sykes JE, Huntington PJ, et al: Rotavirus infections in Australian foals. Aust Equine Vet 10(3):123–126, 1992.
  166. Dwyer RM: Rotaviral diarrhea. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 9(2):311–319, 1993. PUBMED Abstract
  167. Ciarlet M, Estes MK: Rotaviruses: basic biology epidemiology and methodologies. In Bitton G, editor: Encyclopedia of environmental microbiology, New York, 2002, Wiley.
  168. Matthijnssens J, Miño S, Papp H, et al: Complete molecular genome analyses of equine rotavirus A strains from different continents reveal several novel genotypes and a largely conserved genotype constellation. J Gen Virol 93:866–875, 2012. PUBMED Abstract
  169. Powell DG, Dwyer RM, Traub-Dargatz JL, et al: Field study of the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of an inactivated equine rotavirus vaccine. J Am Vet Med Assoc 211(2):193–198, 1997. PUBMED Abstract
  170. Sheoran AS, Karzenski SS, Whalen JW, et al: Prepartum equine rotavirus vaccination inducing strong specific IgG in mammary secretions. Vet Rec 146(23):672–673, 2000. PUBMED Abstract
  171. Barrandeguy M, Parreño V, Lagos Mármol M, et al: Prevention of rotavirus diarrhoea in foals by parenteral vaccination of the mares: field trial. Dev Biol Stand 92:253–257, 1998. PUBMED Abstract
  172. Imagawa H, Wada R, Sugita S, et al: Passive immunity in foals of mares immunised with inactivated equine rotavirus vaccine. In Equine Infectious Diseases VIII: Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference, Newmarket, England, 1999, R&W Publications, pp 201–205.
  173. Kaufmann AF, Fox MD, Kolb RC: Anthrax in Louisiana, 1971: an evaluation of the Sterne strain anthrax vaccine. J Am Vet Med Assoc 163(5):442–445, 1973. PUBMED Abstract
  174. Lynch SE, Gilkerson JR, Symes SJ, et al: Persistence and chronic urinary shedding of the aphthovirus equine rhinitis A virus. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 36:95–103, 2013. PUBMED Abstract
  175. Black WD, Wilcox RS, Stevenson RA, et al: Prevalence of serum neutralising antibody to equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV), equine rhinitis B virus 1 (ERBV1) and ERBV2. Vet Microbiol 119:65–71, 2007. PUBMED Abstract
  176. Kriegshauser G, Deutz A, Kuechler E, et al: Prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to Equine rhinitis A and B virus in horses and man. Vet Microbiol 106:293–296, 2005. PUBMED Abstract
  177. Li F, Drummer HE, Ficorilli N, et al: Identification of noncytopathic equine rhinovirus 1 as a cause of acute febrile respiratory disease in horses. J Clin Microbiol 35:937–943, 1997. PUBMED Abstract
  178. Ditchfield J, Macpherson LW: The properties and classification of two new rhinoviruses recovered from horses in Toronto, Canada. Cornell Vet 55:181–189, 1965. PUBMED Abstract
  179. Dynon K, Black WD, Ficorilli N, et al: Detection of viruses in nasal swab samples from horses with acute, febrile, respiratory disease using virus isolation, polymerase chain reaction and serology. Aust Vet J 85:46–50, 2007. PUBMED Abstract
  180. Diaz-Mendez A, Viel L, Hewson J, et al: Surveillance of equine respiratory viruses in Ontario. Can J Vet Res 74:271–278, 2010. PUBMED Abstract
  181. Cassone A, Casadevall A: Recent progress in vaccines against fungal diseases. Curr Opin Microbiol 15:427–433, 2012. PUBMED Abstract