Chapter 52 Aspergillosis

  1. Geiser DM, Gueidan C, Miadlikowska J, et al: Eurotiomycetes: Eurotiomycetidae and Chaetothyriomycetidae. Mycologia 98(6):1053, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Picard JA, Vismer HF: Mycoses. In Coetzer JA, Tustin RC, editors: Infectious diseases of livestock, Cape Town, 2004, Oxford University Press, p 2095.
  3. Carrasco L, Tarradas MC, Gomez-Villamandos JC, et al: Equine pulmonary mycosis due to Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifer. J Comp Pathol 117:191, 1997. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Tunev SS, Ehrhart EJ, Jensen HE, et al: Necrotizing mycotic vasculitis with cerebral infarction caused by Aspergillus niger in a horse with acute typhlocolitis. Vet Pathol 36:347, 1999. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Keegan KG, Dillavou CL, Tornquist SE, et al: Subcutaneous mycetoma-like granuloma in a horse caused by Aspergillus versicolor. J Vet Diagn Invest 7:564, 1995. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Marolt J, Naglic T, Hajsig D: Aspergillus oryzae as a cause of keratomycosis in the horse. Tierarztl Prax 12(4):489, 1984. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Hintz HF: Molds, mycotoxins, and mycotoxicosis. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 6(2):419, 1990. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Rementeria A, Lopez-Molina N, Ludwig A, et al: Genes and molecules involved in Aspergillus fumigatus virulence. Rev Iberoam Micol 22:1, 2005. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Tekaia F, Latge JP: Aspergillus fumigatus, saprophyte or pathogen? Curr Opin Microbiol 8:385, 2005. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Krappmann S, Braus GH: Nitrogen metabolism of Aspergillus and its role in pathogenicity. Med Mycol 43(suppl 1):s31, 2005. PUBMED Abstract
  11. McGorum BC, Dixon PM, Halliwell RE: Responses of horses affected with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to inhalation challenges with mould antigens. Equine Vet J 25(4):261, 1993. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Tomee JF, Kauffman FH: Putative virulence factors of Aspergillus fumigatus. Clin Exp Allergy 30:476, 2000. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Nardoni S, Mancianti F, Sgorbini M, et al: Evaluation of seasonal presence of fungal spores in three stables. Ippologia 14(1):61, 2003.
  14. Moore CP, Heller BS, Marjors LF, et al: Prevalence of microorganisms in hospitalized and stabled horses. Am J Vet Res 49(6):773, 1988. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Whiteley RK, Moore CP: Microbiology of the equine eye in health and disease. Vet Clin North Am Large Animal Pract 6(3):451, 1984. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Riis RC: Equine ophthalmology. In Gelatt K, editor: Textbook of veterinary ophthalmology, Philadelphia, 1981, Lea & Febiger.
  17. McLaughlin SA, Gilger BC, Whitely RD: Infectious keratitis in horses: evaluation and management. Compend Equine Pract 14(3):372, 1992.
  18. Rosa M, Cardozo LM, Da Sliva Pereira J, et al: Fungal flora of normal eyes of healthy horses for the States of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Vet Ophthalmol 6(1):51, 2003. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Nardoni S, Sqorbini M, Barsotti G, et al: Conjunctival fungal flora in healthy donkeys. Vet Ophthalmol 10(4):207, 2007. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Coad CT, Robinson NM, Wilhelmus KR: Antifungal sensitivity testing for equine keratomycosis. Am J Vet Res 46(3):676, 1985. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Samuelson DA, Andersen BS, Gwin RM: Conjunctival fungal flora in horses, cattle, dogs, and cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 184(10):1240, 1984. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Beech J: Cytology of tracheobronchial aspirates in horses. Vet Pathol 12:157, 1975. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Slocombe RF, Slauson DO: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis of horses: an association with acute enteritis. Vet Pathol 25:277, 1988. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Dascanio JJ, Schweizer C, Ley WB: Equine fungal endometritis. Equine Vet Educ 3(6):420, 2001.
  25. Nasisse MP, Nelms S: Equine ulcerative keratitis. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 8(3):537, 1992. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Gaarder JE, Rebhun WC, Ball MA, et al: Clinical appearances, healing patterns, risk factors, and outcomes of horses with fungal with fungal keratitis: 53 cases (1978-1996). J Am Vet Med Assoc 213(1):105, 1998. PUBMED Abstract
  27. Andrew SE, Brooks DE, Smith PJ, et al: Equine ulcerative keratomycosis: visual outcome and ocular survival in 39 cases (1987-1996). Equine Vet J 30(2):109, 1998. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Moore CP, Collins BK, Fales WH: Antibacterial susceptibility patterns for microbial isolates associated with infectious keratitis in horses: 63 cases (1986-1994). J Am Vet Med Assoc 207(7):928, 1995. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Voelter-Ratson K, Pot SA, Florin M, et al: Equine keratomycosis in Switzerland: a retrospective evaluation of 35 horses (January 2000-August 2011). Equine Vet J 2013. Epub ahead of print. PUBMED Abstract
  30. Reed Z, Thomasy SM, Good KL, et al: Equine keratomycosis in California from 1987 to 2010 (47 cases). Equine Vet J 2012. Epub ahead of print. PUBMED Abstract
  31. Wada S, Hobo S, Ode H, et al: Equine keratomycosis in Japan. Vet Ophthalmol 16(1):1–9, 2013. PUBMED Abstract
  32. Brooks DE, Andrew SE, Dillavou Cl, et al: Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of fungi isolated from horses with ulcerative keratomycosis. Am J Vet Res 59(2):138, 1998. PUBMED Abstract
  33. Sansom J, Featherstone H, Barnett KC: Keratomycosis in six horses in the United Kingdom. Vet Rec 156:13, 2005. PUBMED Abstract
  34. Pugh DG, Bowen JM, Kloppe LH: Fungal endometritis in mares. Compend Contin Educ 8(4):S173, 1986.
  35. Osweiler GD: Toxicology, Philadelphia, 1996, Williams & Wilkins.
  36. Morrison CJ, Lindsley MD: Serological approaches to the diagnosis of invasive fungal infections. In Calderone RA, Cihlar RL, editors: Fungal pathogenesis: principles and clinical applications, New York, 2002, Marcel Dekker, p 671.
  37. Carrasco L, Mendez A, Jensen HE: Chronic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in a horse with Cushing's syndrome. Mycoses 39:443, 1996. PUBMED Abstract
  38. Sweeney CR, Habecker PL: Pulmonary aspergillosis in horses: 29 cases (1974-1997). J Am Vet Med Assoc 214(6):808, 1999. PUBMED Abstract
  39. Buechner-Maxwell V, Zhang C, et al: Intravascular leukostasis and systemic aspergillosis in a horse with subleukemic acute myelomonocytic leukemia. J Vet Intern Med 8(4):258, 1994. PUBMED Abstract
  40. Blue J, Perdrizet J, Brown E: Pulmonary aspergillosis in a horse with myelomonocytic leukemia. J Am Vet Med Assoc 190(12):1562, 1987. PUBMED Abstract
  41. Hattel AL, Drake TR, Anderholm BJ, et al: Pulmonary aspergillosis associated with acute enteritis in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 199(5):589, 1991. PUBMED Abstract
  42. Pace LW, Wirth NR, Foss RR, et al: Endocarditis and pulmonary aspergillosis in a horse. J Vet Diagn Invest 6(4):504, 1994. PUBMED Abstract
  43. Green SL, Hager DA, Calderwood Mays MD, et al: Acute diffuse mycotic pneumonia in a 7-month-old colt. Vet Radiol 28(6):216, 1987.
  44. Blomme E, Del Piero F, La Perle KM, et al: Aspergillosis in horses: a review. Equine Vet Educ 10:86, 1998.
  45. Long JR, Mitchell L: Pulmonary aspergillosis in a mare. Can Vet J 12(1):16, 1971. PUBMED Abstract
  46. Rush-Moore B, Reed SM, Kowolski J, et al: Aspergillosis granuloma in the mediastinum of a non-immunocompromised horse. Cornell Vet 83:97, 1993. PUBMED Abstract
  47. Hilton H, Galuppo L, Puchalski SM, et al: Successful treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a neonatal foal. J Vet Intern Med 23:375, 2009. PUBMED Abstract
  48. Pirie RS, Dixon PM, McGorum BC: Endotoxin contamination contributes to the pulmonary inflammatory and functional response to Aspergillus fumigatus extract inhalation in heaves horses. Clin Exp Allergy 33:1289, 2003. PUBMED Abstract
  49. Eder C, Crameri R, Mayer C, et al: Allergen-specific IgE levels against crude mould and storage mite extracts and recombinant mould allergens in sera from horses affected with chronic bronchitis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 73(3/4):241, 2000. PUBMED Abstract
  50. Kunzle F, Gerber V, Van Der Haegen A, et al: IgE-bearing cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and allergen-specific IgE levels in sera from RAO-affected horses. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 54(1):40, 2007. PUBMED Abstract
  51. Schmallenbach KH, Rahman I, Sasse HH, et al: Studies on pulmonary and systemic Aspergillus fumigatus–specific IgE and IgG antibodies in horses affected with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Vet Immunol Immunopathol 66:245, 1998. PUBMED Abstract
  52. Hare JE, Viel L, Conlon PD, et al: In vitro allergen-induced degranulation of pulmonary mast cells from horses with recurrent airway obstruction (heaves). Am J Vet Res 60(7):841, 1999. PUBMED Abstract
  53. Leguillette R: Recurrent airway obstruction: heaves. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 19(1):63, 2003. PUBMED Abstract
  54. Davis E, Rush BR: Equine recurrent airway obstruction: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and patient management. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 18(3):453, 2002. PUBMED Abstract
  55. Moore CP, Fales WH, Whittington P, et al: Bacterial and fungal isolates from Equidae with ulcerative keratitis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 182(6):600, 1983. PUBMED Abstract
  56. Moore CP, Collins BK, Fales WH, et al: Antimicrobial agents for treatment of infectious keratitis in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 207(7):855, 1995. PUBMED Abstract
  57. Brooks DE: Inflammatory stromal keratopathies: medical management of stromal keratomalacia, stromal abscesses, eosinophilic keratitis, and band keratopathy in the horse. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 20:345, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  58. Searl SS, Udell IJ, Sadun A, et al: Aspergillus keratitis with intraocular invasion. Ophthalmology 88:1244, 1981. PUBMED Abstract
  59. Grahn B, Wolfer J, Keller C, et al: Equine keratomycosis: clinical and laboratory findings in 23 cases. Prog Vet Comp Ophthalmol 3(1):2, 1993.
  60. Kern TJ, Brooks DE, White MM: Equine keratomycosis: current concepts of diagnosis and therapy. Equine Vet J Suppl 2:33, 1983.
  61. Welch PM, Gabal M, Betts DM, et al: In vitro analysis of anti-angiogenic activity of fungi isolated from clinical cases of equine keratomycosis. Vet Ophthalmol 3:145, 2000. PUBMED Abstract
  62. Williams JH, Phillips TD, Jolly PE, et al: Human aflatoxicosis in developing countries: a review of toxicology, exposure, potential health consequences, and interventions. Am J Clin Nutr 80:1106, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  63. Robens JF, Richards JL: Aflatoxins in animal and human health. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 127:69, 1992. PUBMED Abstract
  64. Hamor RE, Welan NC: Equine infectious keratitis. Clin Pharmacol Ther 15(3):623, 1999. PUBMED Abstract
  65. Barton MH: Equine keratomycosis. Compend Equine Pract 14(7):936, 1992.
  66. Beech J, Sweeney CR: Keratomycosis in 11 horses. Equine Vet J Suppl 2:39, 1983.
  67. Greet TRC: Nasal aspergillosis in three horses. Vet Rec 109:487, 1981.
  68. Tremaine WH, Dixon PM: A long-term study of 277 cases of equine sinonasal disease. Part 1. Details of horses, historical, clinical and ancillary diagnostic findings. Part 2. Treatments and results of treatments. Equine Vet J 33(3):274, 283, 2001. PUBMED Abstract
  69. Nickels FA: Diseases of the nasal cavity. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 9(1):111, 1993. PUBMED Abstract
  70. Hess MB, Parker NA, Purswell BJ, et al: Use of lufenuron as a treatment for fungal endometritis in four mares. J Am Vet Med Assoc 221(2):266, 2002. PUBMED Abstract
  71. Mahaffey LW, Adam NM: Abortions associated with mycotic lesions of the placenta in mares. J Am Vet Med Assoc 144(1):24, 1964. PUBMED Abstract
  72. Bortell R, Asquith RL, Edds GT, et al: Acute experimentally induced aflatoxicosis in the weanling pony. Am J Vet Res 44(11):2110, 1983. PUBMED Abstract
  73. Vesonder R, Halibuton J, Stubblefield R, et al: Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxins B1, B2, and M1 in corn associated with equine death. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 20(1):151, 1991. PUBMED Abstract
  74. Caloni F, Cortinovis C: Toxicological effects of aflatoxins in horses. Vet J 188:270, 2011. PUBMED Abstract
  75. Greene HJ, Oehme FW: A possible case of equine aflatoxicosis. Clin Toxicol 9:251, 1976. PUBMED Abstract
  76. Angsubhakorn S, Poomvises P, Romruen K, et al: Aflatoxicosis in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 178:274, 1981. PUBMED Abstract
  77. Vesonder R, Haliburton J, Stubblefield R, et al: Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin B1, B2, and M1 in corn associated with equine death. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 20:151, 1991. PUBMED Abstract
  78. Hasso SA: Non-fatal aflatoxicosis in Arabian horses in Iraq. Vet Rec 152:647, 2003. PUBMED Abstract
  79. Guillot J, Sarfati J, de Barros M, et al: Comparative study of serological tests for diagnosis of equine aspergillosis. Vet Rec 145(12):348, 1999. PUBMED Abstract
  80. Belknap EB, Barden CA, Yin C, et al: Real time PCR as a diagnostic tool for equine fungal keratitis: a preliminary study. In Proceedings of the 36th Annual ACVO Conference, Nashville, Tenn, 2005, p 26.
  81. Willinger B: Laboratory diagnosis and therapy of invasive fungal infections. Curr Drug Targets 7(4):513–522, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  82. Hospenthal DR, Murray CK, Rinaldi MG: The role of antifungal susceptibility testing in the therapy of candidiasis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 48:153, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  83. Groll AH, Kolve H: Antifungal agents: in vitro susceptibility testing, pharmacodynamics, and prospects for combination therapy. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 23:256, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  84. Balkis MM, Leidich SD, Mukherjee PK, et al: Mechanisms of fungal resistance: an overview. Drugs 62(7):1025, 2002. PUBMED Abstract
  85. Groll AH, Walsh TJ: Antifungal chemotherapy: advances and perspectives. Swiss Med Wkly 132:303, 2002. PUBMED Abstract
  86. Rex JH, Pfaller MA: Has antifungal susceptibility testing come of age? Clin Infect Dis 35:982, 2002. PUBMED Abstract
  87. Latimer FG, Colitz CM, Campbell NB, et al: Pharmacokinetics of fluconazole following intravenous and oral administration and body fluid concentrations of fluconazole following repeated oral dosing in horses. Am J Vet Res 62(10):1606, 2001. PUBMED Abstract
  88. Troke PF, Andrews RJ, Pye GW: Fluconazole and other azoles: translation of in vitro activity to in vivo and clinical efficacy. Rev Infect Dis 12(suppl 3):s276, 1990. PUBMED Abstract
  89. Pfaller MA, Sheehan DJ, Rex JH: Determination of fungicidal activities against yeasts and molds: lessons learned from bactericidal testing and the need for standardization. Clin Microbiol Rev 17(2):268, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  90. Brooks DE, Andrew SE, Strubbe DH, et al: Rose bengal positive epithelial microerosions as a manifestation of equine keratomycosis. Vet Ophthalmol 3(2/3):83, 2000. PUBMED Abstract
  91. Vanden Bossche H, Engelen M, Rochette F: Antifungal agents of use in animal health: chemical, biochemical and pharmacological aspects. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 26:5, 2003. PUBMED Abstract
  92. Rochette F, Engelen M, Vanden Bossche H: Antifungal agents of use in animal health: practical applications. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 26:31, 2003. PUBMED Abstract
  93. Stewart J: Antifungal therapy for horses. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 27(11):871, 2005.
  94. Pyle RL: Clinical pharmacology of amphotericin B. J Am Vet Med Assoc 179(1):83, 1981. PUBMED Abstract
  95. Maertens JA, Boogaerts MA: Fungal cell wall inhibitors: emphasis on clinical aspects. Curr Pharm Design 6:225, 2000. PUBMED Abstract
  96. Brajtburg J, Powderly WG, Kobayashi GS, et al: Amphotericin B: current understanding of mechanisms of action. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 34(2):183, 1990. PUBMED Abstract
  97. Reilly LK: Systemic antifungal therapy in horses. In Proceedings of the 17th Annual Veterinary Forum, American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Chicago, 1999.
  98. Reilly LK, Palmer JE: Systemic candidiasis in four foals. J Am Vet Med Assoc 205:464, 1994. PUBMED Abstract
  99. Madison JB, Reid BV, Raskin RE: Amphotericin B treatment of Candida arthritis in two horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 206:338, 1995. PUBMED Abstract
  100. Ruoff WW: Fungal pneumonia in horses. Proc Am Assoc Equine Pract 34:423, 1989.
  101. McMullan WC, Joyce JR, Hanselka DV, et al: Amphotericin B for the treatment of localized subcutaneous phycomycosis in the horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 170:1293, 1977. PUBMED Abstract
  102. Joyce JR, McMuan WC, Burns SJ: The use of amphotericin B in late pregnancy in mares. J Equine Med Surg 1:256, 1977.
  103. Riley CB, Yovich JV, Robertson JP, et al: Fungal arthritis due to infection by Candida famata in a horse. Aust Vet J 69:65, 1992. PUBMED Abstract
  104. Begg LM, Hughes KJ, Kessell A, et al: Successful treatment of cryptococcal pneumonia in a pony mare. Aust Vet J 82:686, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  105. Cornick JL: Diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary histoplasmosis in a horse. Cornell Vet 80:97, 1990. PUBMED Abstract
  106. Steckel RR, Adams SB, Long GG, et al: Antemortem diagnosis and treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 180:1085, 1982. PUBMED Abstract
  107. Ellis D: Amphotericin B; spectrum and resistance. J Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49(suppl 1):7, 2002. PUBMED Abstract
  108. Willinger B: Laboratory diagnosis and therapy of invasive fungal infections. Curr Drug Targets 7(4):513, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  109. Dupont B: Overview of lipid formulations of amphotericin B. J Antimicrob Chemother 49(suppl 1):31, 2002.
  110. Gaboriau F, Cheron M, Petit C, et al: Heat-induced superaggregation of amphotericin B reduces its in vitro toxicity: a new way to improve its therapeutic index. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 41(11):2345, 1997. PUBMED Abstract
  111. Petit C, Cheron M, Joly V et al: In-vivo therapeutic efficacy in experimental murine mycoses of a new formulation of deoxycholate-amphotericin B obtained by mild heating. J Antimicrob Chemother 42:779, 1998. PUBMED Abstract
  112. Bartlett K, Yau E, Hartsel SC, et al: Effect of heat-treated amphotericin B on renal and fungal cytotoxicity. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48(1):333, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  113. Shaker-Nejad K, Stahlmann R: Drug interactions during therapy with three major groups of antimicrobial agents. Exp Opin Pharmacother 7(6):639–651, 2006 PUBMED Abstract
  114. Herbrecht R, Nivoix Y, Fohrer C: Management of systemic fungal infections: alternatives to itraconazole. J Antimicrob Chemother 56(suppl 1):39, 2005. PUBMED Abstract
  115. Thomas PA: Current perspectives on ophthalmic mycoses. Clin Microbiol Rev 16(4):730, 2003. PUBMED Abstract
  116. Davis PR, Meyer GA, Hanson R, et al: Pseudallescheria boydii infection of the nasal cavity of a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 5(1):707, 2000. PUBMED Abstract
  117. Nappert G, Van Dyck T, Papich M, et al: Successful treatment of a fever associated with consistent pulmonary isolation of Scopulariopsis sp in a mare. Equine Vet J 28:421, 1996. PUBMED Abstract
  118. Prades M, Brown MP, Gronwall R, et al: Body fluid and endometrial concentrations of ketoconazole in mares after intravenous injection or repeated gavage. Equine Vet J 21(3):211, 1989. PUBMED Abstract
  119. Ziemer EL, Pappagianis D, Madigan JE: Coccidioidomycosis in horses: 15 cases (1975-1984). J Am Vet Med Assoc 201:910, 1992. PUBMED Abstract
  120. Korenek NL, Legendre AM, Andrews FM, et al: Treatment of mycotic rhinitis with itraconazole in 3 horses. J Vet Intern Med 8:224, 1994. PUBMED Abstract
  121. Davis EW, Legendre AM: Successful treatment of guttural pouch mycosis with itraconazole and topical enilconazole in a horse. J Vet Intern Med 8:304, 1994. PUBMED Abstract
  122. Foley JP, Legendre AM: Treatment of coccidioidomycosis osteomyelitis with itraconazole in a horse. J Vet Intern Med 6:333, 1992. PUBMED Abstract
  123. Van Nieuwstadt RA, Kalsbeek HC: Luchtzakmycose: locale behandleing via een permanente catheter met enilconazol. Tidschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 119:3, 1994.
  124. Latimer GB, Colitz CMH, Campbell NB, et al: Pharmacokinetics of fluconazole following intravenous and oral administration, and ocular tissue and body fluid concentrations of fluconazole following repeated oral dosing in horses. Vet Opthalmol 4:289, 2001. PUBMED Abstract
  125. Hendrix DVH, Ward DA, Guglick MA: Disseminated candidiasis in a neonatal foal with keratomycosis as the initial sign. Vet Comp Ophthalmol 7:10, 1997.
  126. Steinbach WJ, Stevens DA: Review of newer antifungal and immunomodulatory strategies for invasive aspergillosis. Clin Infect Dis 37(suppl 3):157, 2003. PUBMED Abstract
  127. Clode AB, Davis J, Salmon J, et al: Aqueous humor concentrations of voriconazole after topical and oral administration in horses. In Proceedings of the 36th Annual ACVO Conference, Nashville, Tenn, 2005, p 31.
  128. Clode AB, Davis JL, Salmon J, et al: Evaluation of concentration of voriconazole in aqueous humor after topical and oral administration in horses. Am J Vet Res 67(2):296, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  129. Passler NH, Chan HM, Stewart AJ, et al: Distribution of voriconazole in seven body fluids of adult horses after repeated oral dosing. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 33(1):35, 2010. PUBMED Abstract
  130. Colitz CM, Latimer FG, Cheng H, et al: Pharmacokinetics of voriconazole following intravenous and oral administration and body fluid concentrations of voriconazole following repeated oral administration to horses. Am J Vet Res 68:1115, 2007. PUBMED Abstract
  131. Davis JL, Salmon JH, Papich MG: Pharmacokinetics of voriconazole after oral and intravenous administration to horses. Am J Vet Res 67:1070, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  132. Grooters AM: New directions in antifungal therapy. In Proceedings of the 17th Annual Veterinary Forum, American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Chicago, 1999, p 637.
  133. Scotty NC, Evans TJ, Giuliano E, et al: In vitro efficacy of lufenuron against filamentous fungi and blood concentrations after PO administration in horses. J Vet Intern Med 19:878, 2005. PUBMED Abstract
  134. Li RK, Rinaldi MG: In vitro antifungal activity of nikkomycin Z in combination with fluconazole and itraconazole. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43(6):1401, 1999. PUBMED Abstract
  135. Ball MA, Rebhun WC, Gaarder JE, et al: Evaluation of itraconazole–dimethyl sulfoxide ointment for treatment of keratomycosis in nine horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 211(2):199, 1997. PUBMED Abstract
  136. Foster CS, Lass JH, Moran-Wallace K, et al: Ocular toxicity of topical antifungal agents. Arch Ophthalmol 99(6):1081, 1981. PUBMED Abstract
  137. Bistner SI, Riis RC: Clinical aspects of mycotic keratitis in the horse. Cornell Vet 69:364, 1979. PUBMED Abstract
  138. Foster CS, Stefanyszyn M: Intraocular penetration of miconazole in rabbits. Arch Ophthalmol 97:1703, 1979. PUBMED Abstract
  139. Ball MA, Rebhun WC, Trepanier L, et al: Corneal concentrations and preliminary toxicological evaluation of an itraconazole/dimethyl sulphoxide ophthalmic ointment. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 20:100, 1997. PUBMED Abstract
  140. Brayton CF: Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO): a review. Cornell Vet 76(1):61–90, 1986. PUBMED Abstract
  141. Landsdown AB: A review of the use of silver in wound care: facts and fallacies. Br J Nurs 13(6 suppl):S6, 2004.
  142. Pearce JW, Giuliano EA, Moore CP: In vitro susceptibility patterns of Aspergillus and Fusarium species isolated from equine ulcerative keratomycosis cases in the midwestern and southern United States with inclusion of the new antifungal agent voriconazole. Vet Ophthalmol 12(5):318, 2009. PUBMED Abstract
  143. Tsujita H, Plummer CE: Corneal stromal abscessation in two horses treated with intracorneal and subconjunctival injection of 1% voriconazole solution. Vet Ophthal 2012. Epub ahead of print. PUBMED Abstract
  144. Mohan M, Gupta VK, Kalra RB, et al: Topical silver sulphadiazine: a new drug for ocular keratomycosis. Br J Ophthalmol 72:192, 1988.
  145. Vanden Bossche H, Engelen M, Rochette F: Antifungal agents of use in animal health—chemical, biochemical and pharmacological aspects. J Vet Phramacol Ther 26(1):5–29, 2003. PUBMED Abstract
  146. Joyce JR: Thiabendazole therapy of mycotic keratitis in horses. Equine Vet J Suppl 2:45, 1983.
  147. Pascoe RR: Experimental medication of equine ringworm due to Trichophyton equinum var. autotrophicum. Aust Vet J 61:231, 1984. PUBMED Abstract
  148. Brooks DE, Andrew SE, Naisse MP: Comments regarding retrospective study on horses with fungal keratitis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 218(5):603, 1998 (letter to the editor). PUBMED Abstract
  149. Hendrix DVH, Brooks DE, Smith PJ, et al: Corneal stromal abscesses in the horse: a review of 24 cases. Equine Vet J 27(6):440, 1995. PUBMED Abstract
  150. Steinbach WJ: Combination antifungal therapy for invasive aspergillosis: utilizing new targeting strategies. Curr Drug Targets Infect Disord 5(3):203, 2005. PUBMED Abstract
  151. Kendall A, Brojer J, Karlstam E, et al: Enilconazole treatment of horses with superficial Aspergillus spp. rhinitis. J Vet Intern Med 22(5):1239, 2008. PUBMED Abstract
  152. French DD, Haynes PF, Miller RI, et al: Surgical and medical management of rhinophycomycosis (conidiobolomycosis) in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 186:1105, 1985. PUBMED Abstract
  153. Carmalt JL, Baptiste KE: Atypical guttural pouch mycosis in three horses. Pferdeheikunde 20(6):542, 2004.