Chapter 44 Tetanus

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  8. Mellanby J: The effect of glutamate on toxin production by Clostridium tetani. J Gen Microbiol 54:77–82, 1968. PUBMED Abstract
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  15. Sanders RK: The management of tetanus 1996. Trop Doct 26:107–115, 1996. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Dietz V, Milstien JB, van Loon F, et al: Performance and potency of tetanus toxoid: implications for eliminating neonatal tetanus. Bull World Health Organ 74:619–628, 1996. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Fairweather NF, Lyness VA: The complete nucleotide sequence of tetanus toxin. Nucleic Acids Res 14:7809–7812, 1986. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Turton K, Chaddock JA, Acharya KR: Botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins: structure, function and therapeutic utility. Trends Biochem Sci 27:552–558, 2002. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Erdmann G, Wiegand H, Wellhöner HH: Intraaxonal and extraaxonal transport of 125I-tetanus toxin in early local tetanus. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 290:357–373, 1975. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Caleo M, Schiavo G: Central effects of tetanus and botulinum neurotoxins. Toxicon 54:593–599, 2009. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Schiavo G, Benfenati F, Poulain B, et al: Tetanus and botulinum-B neurotoxins block neurotransmitter release by proteolytic cleavage of synaptobrevin. Nature 359:832–835, 1992. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Collingridge GL, Davies J: The in vitro inhibition of GABA release by tetanus toxin. Neuropharmacology 21:851–855, 1982. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Domenighetti GM, Savary G, Stricker H: Hyperadrenergic syndrome in severe tetanus: extreme rise in catecholamines responsive to labetalol. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 288:1483–1484, 1984. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Trujillo MH, Castillo A, España J, et al: Impact of intensive care management on the prognosis of tetanus. Analysis of 641 cases. Chest 92:63–65, 1987. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Mellanby J, Green J: How does tetanus toxin act? Neuroscience 6:281–300, 1981. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Carrea R, Lanari A: Chronic effect of tetanus toxin applied locally to the cerebral cortex of the dog. Science 137:342–343, 1962. PUBMED Abstract
  27. Sanford JP: Tetanus—forgotten but not gone. N Engl J Med 332:812–813, 1995. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Brook I: Current concepts in the management of Clostridium tetani infection. Expert Rev Anti-Infect Ther 6:327–336, 2008. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Gill DM: Bacterial toxins: a table of lethal amounts. Microbiol Rev 46:86–94, 1982. PUBMED Abstract
  30. Akbulut D, Grant KA, McLauchlin J: Improvement in laboratory diagnosis of wound botulism and tetanus among injecting illicit-drug users by use of real-time PCR assays for neurotoxin gene fragments. J Clin Microbiol 43:4342–4348, 2005. PUBMED Abstract
  31. Turillazzi E, Neri M, Pomara C, et al: An immunohistochemical study on a tetanus fatal case using toxin fragment C (TTC). Should it be a useful diagnostic tool? Neuropathology 29:68–71, 2009. PUBMED Abstract
  32. Lundvall RL: Chlorpromazine hydrochloride for tetanus in the horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 132:254–255, 1958. PUBMED Abstract
  33. Greatorex JC: Intravenous nutrition in the treatment of tetanus in horses. Vet Rec 97:498, 1975. PUBMED Abstract
  34. Brook D: Tetanus in horses. Vet Rec 87:700–701, 1970. PUBMED Abstract
  35. Beroza GA: Tetanus in the horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 177:1152–1154, 1980. PUBMED Abstract
  36. Bouvier M: [Case history. Tetanus in a horse.] Can Vet J 13:170–172, 1972. PUBMED Abstract
  37. Smith HM: Methocarbamol therapy in equine tetanus. J Am Vet Med Assoc 134:282, 1959. PUBMED Abstract
  38. Basset J, Monvoisin A, Pincemin C: [On experimental tetanus of the horse.] C R Seances Soc Biol Ses Fil 82:1261–1262, 1919.
  39. Eaton G: A note on the use of hexamine in the treatment of tetanus in the horse. Vet Rec 63:59–60, 1951. PUBMED Abstract
  40. Dolar D: The use of continuous atropine infusion in the management of severe tetanus. Intensive Care Med 18:26–31 1992. PUBMED Abstract
  41. Owen LN, Leam G, Nestel BL: The treatment of tetanus with particular reference to chlorpromazine. Vet Rec 71:61–66, 1959.
  42. Muylle E, Oyaert W, Ooms L, et al: Treatment of tetanus in the horse by injections of tetanus antitoxin into the subarachnoid space. J Am Vet Med Assoc 167:47–48, 1975. PUBMED Abstract
  43. Mykkanen AK, Hyytiainen HK, McGowan CM: Generalised tetanus in a 2-week-old foal: use of physiotherapy to aid recovery. Aust Vet J 89:447–451, 2011. PUBMED Abstract
  44. Clarke G, Hill RG: Effects of a focal penicillin lesion on responses of rabbit cortical neurones to putative neurotransmitters. Br J Pharmacol 44:435–441, 1972. PUBMED Abstract
  45. Ahmadsyah I, Salim A: Treatment of tetanus: an open study to compare the efficacy of procaine penicillin and metronidazole. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 291:648–650, 1985. PUBMED Abstract
  46. Kumar AVG, Kothari VM, Krishnan A, et al: Benzathine penicillin, metronidazole and benzyl penicillin in the treatment of tetanus: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 98:59–63, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
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  48. Abrutyn E, Berlin JA: Intrathecal therapy in tetanus. A meta-analysis. JAMA 266:2262–2267, 1991. PUBMED Abstract
  49. Kabura L, Ilibagiza D, Menten J, et al: Intrathecal vs. intramuscular administration of human antitetanus immunoglobulin or equine tetanus antitoxin in the treatment of tetanus: a meta-analysis. Trop Med Int Health 11:1075–1081, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  50. Hjerpe CA: Serum hepatitis in the horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 144:734–740, 1964. PUBMED Abstract
  51. Guglick MA, Macallister CG, Ely RW, et al: Hepatic-disease associated with administration of tetanus antitoxin in 8 horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 206:1737–1740, 1995. PUBMED Abstract
  52. Step DL, Blue JT, Dill SG: Penicillin-induced hemolytic-anemia and acute hepatic-failure following treatment of tetanus in a horse. Cornell Vet 81:13–18, 1991. PUBMED Abstract
  53. Tait AR, Ryan FB: Chlorpromazine in the treatment of tetanus in the horse. Aust Vet J 35:237–238, 2005.
  54. Arcangeli A, Antonelli M, Mignani V, et al. Sedation in PACU: the role of benzodiazepine,. Current Drug Targets 6:745–748, 2005. PUBMED Abstract
  55. Godel JC: Trial of pyridoxine therapy for tetanus neonatorum. J Infect Dis 145:547–549, 1982. PUBMED Abstract
  56. Santos ML, Mota-Miranda A, Alves-Pereira A, et al: Intrathecal baclofen for the treatment of tetanus. Clin Infect Dis 38:321–328, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  57. Korolkiewicz R, Mlynarczyk M, Gasior M, et al: Influence of intracerebroventricular administration of tetanus toxin on experimental seizures and protection afforded by some antiepileptic drugs in mice. Pharmacol Res 37:477–483, 1998. PUBMED Abstract
  58. Booth NH, Pierson RE: Treatment of tetanus with d-tubocurarine chloride. J Am Vet Med Assoc 128:257–261, 1956. PUBMED Abstract
  59. McKenzie EC, Valberg SJ, Godden SM, et al: Effect of oral administration of dantrolene sodium on serum creatine kinase activity after exercise in horses with recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis. Am J Vet Res 2004.65:74–79. PUBMED Abstract
  60. Tidyman M, Prichard JG, Deamer RL, et al: Adjunctive use of dantrolene in severe tetanus. Anesth Analg 64:538–540, 1985. PUBMED Abstract
  61. Blake JA: The use of magnesium sulphate in the production of anaesthesia and in the treatment of tetanus. Surg Gynecol Obstet 2:541–550, 1906.
  62. Thwaites CL, Yen LM, Loan HT, et al: Magnesium sulphate for treatment of severe tetanus: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 368:1436–1443, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  63. Thwaites CL, Yen LM, Cordon SM, et al: Effect of magnesium sulphate on urinary catecholamine excretion in severe tetanus. Anaesthesia 63:719–725, 2008 PUBMED Abstract
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  66. Henninger RW, Horst J: Magnesium toxicosis in two horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 211:82–85, 1997. PUBMED Abstract
  67. Duning T, Schäbitz WR: [Treatment strategies for tetanus.] Nervenarzt 78:145–146, 149–152, 155, 2007. PUBMED Abstract
  68. Boscan P, Van Hoogmoed LM, Farver TB, et al: Evaluation of the effects of the opioid agonist morphine on gastrointestinal tract function in horses. Am J Vet Res 67:992–997, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
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  73. Wilson WD, Mihaly JE, Hussey S, et al: Passive transfer of maternal immunoglobulin isotype antibodies against tetanus and influenza and their effect on the response of foals to vaccination. Equine Vet J 33:644–650, 2001. PUBMED Abstract
  74. Holmes MA, Townsend HGG, Kohler AK, et al: Immune responses to commercial equine vaccines against equine herpesvirus-1, equine influenza virus, eastern equine encephalomyelitis, and tetanus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 111:67–80, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  75. Heldens JGM, Pouwels HGW, Derks CGG, et al: Duration of immunity induced by an equine influenza and tetanus combination vaccine formulation adjuvanted with ISCOM-Matrix. Vaccine 28:6989–6996, 2010.