Chapter 43 Botulism

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  11. Ricketts SW, Greet TR, Glyn PJ, et al: Thirteen cases of botulism in horses fed big bale silage. Equine Vet J 16:515, 1984. PUBMED Abstract
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  24. Li L, Singh BR: Isolation of synaptotagmin as a receptor for types A and E neurotoxin and analysis of their comparative binding using a new microtiter plate assay. J Nat Toxins 7:215, 1998. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Montecucco C, Papini E, Schiavo G: Bacterial protein toxins penetrate cells via a four-step mechanism. FEBS Lett 346:92, 1994. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Blaustein RO, Germann WJ, Finkelstein A, et al: The N-terminal half of the heavy chain of botulinum type A neurotoxin forms channels in planar phospholipid bilayers. FEBS Lett 226:115, 1987. PUBMED Abstract
  27. Humeau Y, Doussau F, Grant NJ, et al: How botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins block neurotransmitter release. Biochimie 82:427, 2000. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Meunier FA, Lisk G, Sesardic D, et al: Dynamics of motor nerve terminal remodeling unveiled using SNARE-cleaving botulinum toxins: the extent and duration are dictated by the sites of SNAP-25 truncation. Mol Cell Neurosci 22:454, 2003. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Eleopra R, Tugnoli V, Rossetto O, et al: Different time courses of recovery after poisoning with botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A and E in humans. Neurosci Lett 256:135, 1998. PUBMED Abstract
  30. Foran PG, Mohammed N, Lisk GO, et al: Evaluation of the therapeutic usefulness of botulinum neurotoxin B, C1, E, and F compared with the long lasting type A: basis for distinct durations of inhibition of exocytosis in central neurons. J Biol Chem 278:1363, 2003. PUBMED Abstract
  31. Merz B, Bigalke H, Stoll G, et al: Botulism type B presenting as pure autonomic dysfunction. Clin Auton Res 13:337, 2003. PUBMED Abstract
  32. Wilkins PA, Palmer JE: Botulism in foals less than 6 months of age: 30 cases (1989-2002). J Vet Intern Med 17:702, 2003. PUBMED Abstract
  33. Chaudhry V, Crawford TO: Stimulation single-fiber EMG in infant botulism. Muscle Nerve 22:1698, 1999. PUBMED Abstract
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  35. Barr BS, Wilkins PA, Del Piero F, et al: Is prophylaxis for gastric ulcers necessary in critically ill equine neonates? A retrospective study of necropsy cases, 1995-1999. J Vet Intern Med 14:328, 2000.
  36. Mills DC, Arnon SS: The large intestine as the site of Clostridium botulinum colonization in human infant botulism. J Infect Dis 156:997, 1987. PUBMED Abstract
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  38. Waggett BE, McGorum BC, Shaw DJ, et al: Evaluation of synaptophysin as an immunohistochemical marker for equine grass sickness. J Comp Pathol 142(4):284–290, 2010. PUBMED Abstract
  39. Valla WE: Diagnosis and treatment of Clostridium botulinum infection in foals: a review of fifty-three cases. In Proceedings of the 9th Annual Veterinary Medical Forum, New Orleans, 1991, p 379.
  40. Bohnel H, Behrens S, Loch P, et al: Is there a link between infant botulism and sudden infant death? Bacteriological results obtained in central Germany. Eur J Pediatr 160:623, 2001. PUBMED Abstract
  41. Shapiro RL, Hatheway C, Swerdlow DL: Botulism in the United States: a clinical and epidemiologic review. Ann Intern Med 129:221, 1998. PUBMED Abstract
  42. Sandrock CE, Murin S: Clinical predictors of respiratory failure and long-term outcome in black tar heroin–associated wound botulism. Chest 120:562, 2001. PUBMED Abstract
  43. Tacket CO, Shandera WX, Mann JM, et al: Equine antitoxin use and other factors that predict outcome in type A foodborne botulism. Am J Med 76:794, 1984. PUBMED Abstract
  44. Wilkins PA, Palmer JE: Mechanical ventilation in foals with botulism: 9 cases (1989-2002). J Vet Intern Med 17:708, 2003. PUBMED Abstract
  45. Palmer JE: Ventilatory support of the newborn foal. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 10:167, 1994. PUBMED Abstract
  46. Singh YN, Marshall IG, Harvey AL: Pre- and postjunctional blocking effects of aminoglycoside, polymyxin, tetracycline and lincosamide antibiotics. Br J Anaesth 54:1295, 1982. PUBMED Abstract
  47. Snavely SR, Hodges GR: The neurotoxicity of antibacterial agents. Ann Intern Med 101:92, 1984. PUBMED Abstract
  48. L'Hommedieu C, Stough R, Brown L, et al: Potentiation of neuromuscular weakness in infant botulism by aminoglycosides. J Pediatr 95:1065, 1979. PUBMED Abstract
  49. Naumann M, Toyka KV, Mansouri Taleghani B, et al: Depletion of neutralising antibodies resensitises a secondary non-responder to botulinum A neurotoxin. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 65:924, 1998. PUBMED Abstract