Chapter 41 Enteric Clostridial Infections

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  6. Arroyo L, Staempfli H, Weese J: Molecular analysis of Clostridium difficile isolates recovered from horses with diarrhea. Vet Microbiol 120(1-2):179–183, 2007. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Barbut F, Decré D, Lalande V, et al: Clinical features of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea due to binary toxin (actin-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase)-producing strains. J Med Microbiol 54(Pt 2):181–185, 2005. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Braun M, Herholz C, Straub R, et al: Detection of the ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin gene (cdtA) and its activity in Clostridium difficile isolates from Equidae. FEMS Microbiol Lett 184(1):29–33, 2000. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Geric B, Carman RJ, Rupnik M, et al: Binary toxin-producing, large clostridial toxin-negative Clostridium difficile strains are enterotoxic but do not cause disease in hamsters. J Infect Dis 193(8):1143–1150, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Knetsch CW, Hensgens MPM, Harmanus C, et al: Genetic markers for Clostridium difficile lineages linked to hypervirulence. Microbiology (Reading, Engl) 2011. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Merrigan M, Venugopal A, Mallozzi M, et al: Human hypervirulent Clostridium difficile strains exhibit increased sporulation as well as robust toxin production. J Bacteriol 192(19):4904–4911, 2010. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Mulvey MR, Boyd DA, Gravel D, et al: Hypervirulent Clostridium difficile strains in hospitalized patients, Canada. Emerging Infect Dis 16(4):678–681, 2010. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Valiquette L, Cossette B, Garant M-P, et al: Impact of a reduction in the use of high-risk antibiotics on the course of an epidemic of Clostridium difficile-associated disease caused by the hypervirulent NAP1/027 strain. Clin Infect Dis 45(suppl 2):S112–S121, 2007. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Songer JG, Trinh HT, Dial SM, et al: Equine colitis X associated with infection by Clostridium difficile NAP1/027. J Vet Diagn Invest 21(3):377–380, 2009. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Bakker D, Corver J, Harmanus C, et al: Relatedness of human and animal Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 078 isolates based on multilocus variable-number of tandem-repeat analysis and tetracycline resistance. J Clin Microbiol 48(10):3744–3749, 2010. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Debast SB, van Leengoed LA, Goorhuis A, et al: Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 078 toxinotype V found in diarrhoeal pigs identical to isolates from affected humans. Environ Microbiol 11(2):505–511, 2009. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Goorhuis A, Bakker D, Corver J, et al: Emergence of Clostridium difficile infection due to a new hypervirulent strain, polymerase chain reaction ribotype 078. Clin Infect Dis 47(9):1162–1170, 2008. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Goorhuis A, Debast SB, van Leengoed LA, et al: Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 078: an emerging strain in humans and in pigs? J Clin Microbiol 46(3):1157, 2008. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Keel K, Brazier JS, Post KW, et al: Prevalence of PCR ribotypes among Clostridium difficile isolates from pigs, calves, and other species. J Clin Microbiol 45(6):1963–1964, 2007. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Weese JS, Wakeford T, Reid-Smith R, et al: Longitudinal investigation of Clostridium difficile shedding in piglets. Anaerobe 16(5):501–504, 2010. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Medina-Torres CE, Weese JS, Staempfli HR: Prevalence of Clostridium difficile in horses. Vet Microbiol 152(1-2):212–215, 2011. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Arroyo L, Kruth S, Willey B, et al: PCR ribotyping of Clostridium difficile isolates originating from human and animal sources. J Med Microbiol 54(Pt 2):163–166, 2005. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Arroyo LG, Staempfli H, Weese JS: Molecular analysis of Clostridium difficile isolates recovered from horses with diarrhea. Vet Microbiol 120(1-2):179–183, 2007. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Thean S, Elliott B, Riley TV: Clostridium difficile in horses in Australia—a preliminary study. J Med Microbiol 60(Pt 8):1188–1192, 2011. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Dhalla IA, Mamdani MM, Simor AE, et al: Are broad-spectrum fluoroquinolones more likely to cause Clostridium difficile-associated disease? Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50(9):3216–3219, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Gerding DN: Clindamycin, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: this is an antimicrobial resistance problem. Clin Infect Dis 38(5):646–648, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  27. Kallen AJ, Thompson A, Ristaino P, et al: Complete restriction of fluoroquinolone use to control an outbreak of Clostridium difficile infection at a community hospital. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 30(3):264–272, 2009. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Goorhuis A, Debast SB, Dutilh JC, et al: Type-specific risk factors and outcome in an outbreak with 2 different Clostridium difficile types simultaneously in 1 hospital. Clin Infect Dis 53(9):860–869, 2011. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Jamal W, Rotimi VO, Brazier J, et al: Analysis of prevalence, risk factors and molecular epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in Kuwait over a 3-year period. Anaerobe 16(6):560–565, 2010. PUBMED Abstract
  30. Sandora TJ, Fung M, Flaherty K, et al: Epidemiology and risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection in children. Ped Infect Dis J 30(7):580–584, 2011. PUBMED Abstract
  31. Cunningham R: Proton pump inhibitors and the risk of Clostridium difficile-associated disease: further evidence from the community. CMAJ 175(7):757, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  32. Dial S, Alrasadi K, Manoukian C, et al: Risk of Clostridium difficile diarrhea among hospital inpatients prescribed proton pump inhibitors: cohort and case-control studies. CMAJ 171:33–38, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  33. Dial S, Delaney J, Schneider V, et al: Proton pump inhibitor use and risk of community-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated disease defined by prescription for oral vancomycin therapy. CMAJ 175(7):745–748, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  34. Kim JW, Lee KL, Jeong JB, et al: Proton pump inhibitors as a risk factor for recurrence of Clostridium-difficile-associated diarrhea. World J Gastroenterol 16(28):3573–3577, 2010. PUBMED Abstract
  35. Lowe DO, Mamdani MM, Kopp A, et al: Proton pump inhibitors and hospitalization for Clostridium difficile-associated disease: a population-based study. Clin Infect Dis 43(10):1272–1276, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  36. Naggie S, Miller BA, Zuzak KB, et al: A Case-control Study of Community-associated Clostridium difficile Infection: No Role for Proton Pump Inhibitors. Am J Med 124(3):276.e271–277, 2011. PUBMED Abstract
  37. Centers for Disease C, Prevention: Severe Clostridium difficile-associated disease in populations previously at low risk—four states, 2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 54(47):1201–1205, 2005.
  38. Centers for Disease C, Prevention: Surveillance for community-associated Clostridium difficile—Connecticut, 2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 57(13):340–343, 2008.
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  40. Weese J, Toxopeus L, Arroyo L: Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea in horses within the community: predictors, clinical presentation and outcome. Equine Vet J 38(2):185–188, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  41. Båverud V, Franklin A, Gunnarsson A, et al: Clostridium difficile associated with acute colitis in mares when their foals are treated with erythromycin and rifampicin for Rhodococcus equi pneumonia. Equine Vet J 30(6):482–488, 1998. PUBMED Abstract
  42. Gustafsson A, Båverud V, Gunnarsson A, et al: The association of erythromycin ethylsuccinate with acute colitis in horses in Sweden. Equine Vet J 29(4):314–318, 1997. PUBMED Abstract
  43. Arroyo L, Stämpfli H, Weese J: Potential role of Clostridium difficile as a cause of duodenitis-proximal jejunitis in horses. J Med Microbiol 55(Pt 5):605–608, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  44. Browning GF, Chalmers RM, Snodgrass DR, et al: The prevalence of enteric pathogens in diarrhoeic thoroughbred foals in Britain and Ireland. Equine Veterinary Journal 23(6):405–409, 1991. PUBMED Abstract
  45. Bueschel D, Walker R, Woods L, et al: Enterotoxigenic Clostridium difficile type A necrotic enteritis in a foal. J Am Vet Med Assoc 213(9):1280, 1305–1307, 1998. PUBMED Abstract
  46. Donaldson MT, Palmer JE: Prevalence of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin and Clostridium difficile toxin A in feces of horses with diarrhea and colic. J Am Vet Med Assoc 215:358–361, 1999. PUBMED Abstract
  47. East LM, Dargatz DA, Traub-Dargatz JL, et al: Foaling-management practices associated with the occurrence of enterocolitis attributed to Clostridium difficile infection in the equine neonate. Prev Vet Med 46(1):61–74, 2000. PUBMED Abstract
  48. East LM, Savage CJ, Traub-Dargatz JL, et al: Enterocolitis associated with Clostridium difficile infection in neonatal foals: 54 cases (1988-1997). J Am Vet Med Assoc 212(11):1751–1756, 1998. PUBMED Abstract
  49. Herholz C, Miserez R, Nicolet J, et al: Prevalence of b2-toxigenic Clostridium perfringens in horses with intestinal disorders. J Clin Microbiol 37:358–361, 1999. PUBMED Abstract
  50. Pearson EG, Hedstrom OR, Sonn R, et al: Hemorrhagic enteritis caused by Clostridium difficile type C in a foal. J Am Vet Med Assoc 188(11):1309–1310, 1986. PUBMED Abstract
  51. White G, Prior SD: Comparative effects of oral administration of trimethoprim/sulphadiazine or oxytetracycline on the faecal flora of horses. Vet Rec 111(14):316–318, 1982. PUBMED Abstract
  52. Garmory HS, Chanter N, French NP, et al: Occurrence of Clostridium difficile beta2-toxin amongst animals, determined using genotyping and subtyping PCR assays. Epidemiol Infect 124(1):61–67, 2000. PUBMED Abstract
  53. Herholz C, Miserez R, Nicolet J, et al: Prevalence of beta2-toxigenic Clostridium difficile in horses with intestinal disorders. J Clin Microbiol 37(2):358–361, 1999. PUBMED Abstract
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  57. Netherwood T, Wood JL, Mumford JA, et al: Molecular analysis of the virulence determinants of Clostridium difficile associated with foal diarrhoea. Vet J 155(3):289–294, 1998. PUBMED Abstract
  58. Howard-Martin M, Morton RJ, Qualls CW, et al: Clostridium difficile type C enterotoxemia in a newborn foal. J Am Vet Med Assoc 189(5):564–565, 1986. PUBMED Abstract
  59. Diab SS, Kinde H, Moore J, et al: Pathology of Clostridium difficile type C enterotoxemia in horses. Vet Pathol 49(2):255–263, 2011. PUBMED Abstract
  60. Uzal FA, Diab SS, Blanchard P, et al: Clostridium difficile type C and Clostridium difficile co-infection in foals. Vet Microbiol 156(3-4):395–402, 2011. PUBMED Abstract
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  62. Ruby R, Magdesian KG, Kass PH: Comparison of clinical, microbiologic, and clinicopathologic findings in horses positive and negative for Clostridium difficile infection. J Am Vet Med Assoc 234(6):777–784, 2009. PUBMED Abstract
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  100. Silverman MS, Davis I, Pillai DR: Success of self-administered home fecal transplantation for chronic Clostridium difficile infection. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 8(5):471–473, 2010. PUBMED Abstract
  101. Yoon SS, Brandt LJ: Treatment of refractory/recurrent C. difficile-associated disease by donated stool transplanted via colonoscopy: a case series of 12 patients. J Clin Gastroenterol 44(8):562–566, 2010. PUBMED Abstract
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