Chapter 6 Neonatal Sepsis

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  3. Bone RC, Balk RA, Cerra FB, et al: Definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine (ACCP/SCCM) Consensus Conference Committee. Chest 101:1644–1655, 1992. PUBMED Abstract
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  5. Bone RC: Sir Isaac Newton, sepsis, SIRS, and CARS. Crit Care Med 24:1125–1128, 1996. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Moore JN, Morris DD: Endotoxemia and septicemia in horses: experimental and clinical correlates. J Am Vet Med Assoc 200:1903–1914, 1992. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Bentley AP, Barton MH, Lee MD, et al: Antimicrobial-induced endotoxin and cytokine activity in an in vitro model of septicemia in foals. Am J Vet Res 63:660–668, 2002. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Marsh PS, Palmer JE: Bacterial isolates from blood and their susceptibility patterns in critically ill foals: 543 cases (1991–1998). J Am Vet Med Assoc 218:1608–1610, 2001. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Corley KT, Pearce G, Magdesian KG, et al: Bacteraemia in neonatal foals: clinicopathological differences between Gram-positive and Gram-negative infections, and single organism and mixed infections. Equine Vet J 39:84–89, 2007. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Sanchez LC, Giguere S, Lester GD: Factors associated with survival of neonatal foals with bacteremia and racing performance of surviving Thoroughbreds: 423 cases (1982-2007). J Am Vet Med Assoc 233:1446–1452, 2008. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Pusterla N, Magdesian KG, Mapes S, et al: Expression of molecular markers in blood of neonatal foals with sepsis. Am J Vet Res 67:1045–1049, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Gold JR, Perkins GA, Erb HN, et al: Cytokine profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from septic and healthy neonatal foals. J Vet Intern Med 21:482–488, 2007. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Stewart AJ, Hinchcliff KW, Saville WJA, et al: Actinobacillus sp. bacteremia in foals: clinical signs and prognosis. J Vet Intern Med 16:464–471, 2002. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Wohlfender FD, Barrelet FE, Doherr MG, et al: Diseases in neonatal foals. Part 2: potential risk factors for a higher incidence of infectious diseases during the first 30 days post partum. Equine Vet J 41:186–191, 2009. PUBMED Abstract
  15. LeBlanc MM, Macpherson M, Sheerin P: Ascending placentitis: what we know about pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. In Proceedings of the 50th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, Denver, 2004, pp 127–143.
  16. Raidal SL: The incidence and consequences of failure of passive transfer of immunity on a thoroughbred breeding farm. Aust Vet J 73:201–206, 1996. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Tyler-McGowan CM, Hodgson JL, Hodgson DR: Failure of passive transfer in foals: incidence and outcome on four studs in New South Wales. Aust Vet J 75:56–59, 1997. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Robinson JA, Allen GK, Green EM, et al: A prospective study of septicaemia in colostrum-deprived foals. Equine Vet J 25:214–219, 1993. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Clabough DL, Levine JF, Grant GL, et al: Factors associated with failure of passive transfer of colostral antibodies in Standard bred foals. J Vet Intern Med 5:335–340, 1991. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Baldwin JL, Cooper WL, Vanderwall DK, et al: Prevalence (treatment days) and severity of illness in hypogammaglobulinemic and normogammaglobulinemic foals. J Am Vet Med Assoc 198:423–428, 1991. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Madigan JE: Method for preventing neonatal septicemia, the leading cause of death in the neonatal foal. In Proceedings of the 43th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, Denver, 1997, pp 17–19.
  22. Jeffcott LB: Studies on passive immunity in the foal. II. The absorption of 125I-labeled PVP (polyvinyl pyrrolidone) by the neonatal intestine. J Comp Pathol 84:279–289, 1974. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Jeffcott LB: Passive immunity and its transfer with special reference to the horse. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 47:439–464, 1972. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Vellenga L, Mouwen JM, van Dijk JE, et al: Biological and pathological aspects of the mammalian small intestinal permeability to macromolecules. Vet Q 7:322–332, 1985. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Rundell JO, Lecce JG: Independence of intestinal epithelial cell turnover from cessation of absorption of macromolecules (closure) in the neonatal mouse, rabbit, hamster and guinea pig. Biol Neonate 20:51–57, 1972. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Raidal SL, McTaggart C, Yovich JV, et al: Effect of withholding macromolecules on the duration of intestinal permeability to colostral IgG in foals. In Proceedings of the 46th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, Denver, 2000, pp 260–263.
  27. Brewer BD: Neonatal infection. In Koterba AM, Drummond WH, Kosch PC, editors: Equine clinical neonatology, Philadelphia, 1990, Lea & Febiger.
  28. Barton MH, Morris DD, Norton N, et al: Hemostatic and fibrinolytic indices in neonatal foals with presumed septicemia. J Vet Intern Med 12:26–35, 1998. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Koterba AM, Brewer BD, Tarplee FA: Clinical and clinicopathological characteristics of the septicaemic neonatal foal: review of 38 cases. Equine Vet J 16:376–382, 1984. PUBMED Abstract
  30. Corley KT, Donaldson LL, Furr MO: Arterial lactate concentration, hospital survival, sepsis and SIRS in critically ill neonatal foals. Equine Vet J 37:53–59, 2005. PUBMED Abstract
  31. Corley KTT, Furr MO: Evaluation of a score designed to predict sepsis in foals. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 13:149–155, 2003.
  32. Koterba AM: Respiratory disease: approach to diagnosis. In Koterba AM, Drummond WH, Kosch PC, editors: Equine Clinical Neonatology. Philadelphia, 1990, Lea & Febiger, pp 153–176.
  33. Armengou L, Monreal L, Tarancon I, et al: Plasma D-dimer concentration in sick newborn foals. J Vet Intern Med 22:411–417, 2008. PUBMED Abstract
  34. Gold JR, Divers TJ, Barton MH, et al: Plasma adrenocorticotropin, cortisol, and adrenocorticotropin/cortisol ratios in septic and normal-term foals. J Vet Intern Med 21:791–796, 2007. PUBMED Abstract
  35. Hart KA, Barton MH, Ferguson DC, et al: Serum free cortisol fraction in healthy and septic neonatal foals. J Vet Intern Med 25(2):345–355, 2011. PUBMED Abstract
  36. Hart KA, Slovis NM, Barton MH: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction in hospitalized neonatal foals. J Vet Intern Med 23:901–912, 2009. PUBMED Abstract
  37. Hurcombe SD, Toribio RE, Slovis N, et al: Blood arginine vasopressin, adrenocorticotropin hormone, and cortisol concentrations at admission in septic and critically ill foals and their association with survival. J Vet Intern Med 22:639–647, 2008. PUBMED Abstract
  38. Wong DM, Vo DT, Alcott CJ, et al: Baseline plasma cortisol and ACTH concentrations and response to low-dose ACTH stimulation testing in ill foals. J Am Vet Med Assoc 234:126–132, 2009. PUBMED Abstract
  39. Panzani S, Villani M, McGladdery A, et al: Concentrations of 15-ketodihydro-PGF2alpha, cortisol, and progesterone in the plasma of healthy and pathologic newborn foals. Theriogenology 72:1032–1040, 2009. PUBMED Abstract
  40. Fowden AL, Forhead AJ, Ousey JC: Endocrine adaptations in the foal over the perinatal period. Equine Vet J 44:130–139, 2012. PUBMED Abstract
  41. Lorenzo-Figueras M, Pusterla N, Byrne BA, et al: In vitro evaluation of three bacterial culture systems for the recovery of Escherichia coli from equine blood. Am J Vet Res 67:2025–2029, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  42. Wilson WD, Madigan JE: Comparison of bacteriologic culture of blood and necropsy specimens for determining the cause of foal septicemia: 47 cases (1978–1987). J Am Vet Med Assoc 195:1759–1763, 1989. PUBMED Abstract
  43. Brewer BD, Koterba AM: Development of a scoring system for the early diagnosis of equine neonatal sepsis. Equine Vet J 20:18–22, 1988. PUBMED Abstract
  44. Brewer BD, Koterba AM, Carter RL, et al: Comparison of empirically developed sepsis score with a computer generated and weighted scoring system for the identification of sepsis in the equine neonate. Equine Vet J 20:23–24, 1988. PUBMED Abstract
  45. Henson S, Barton MH: Bacterial isolates and antibiotic sensitivity patterns from septicemic neonatal foals: a 15 year retrospective study (1986–2000). In Proceedings of the Dorothy Havemeyer Foundation Neonatal Septicemia Workshop 3, Talliores, France, 2001, pp 350–352.
  46. Raisis AL, Hodgson JL, Hodgson DR: Equine neonatal septicaemia: 24 cases. Aust Vet J 73:137–140, 1996. PUBMED Abstract
  47. Russell C, Axon J, Blishen A, et al: Blood culture isolates and antimicrobial sensitivities from 427 critically ill neonatal foals. Aust Vet J 86:266–271, 2008. PUBMED Abstract
  48. McClure JJ, Addison JD, Miller RI: Immunodeficiency manifested by oral candidiasis and bacterial septicemia in foals. J Am Vet Med Assoc 186:1195–1197, 1985. PUBMED Abstract
  49. Reilly LK, Palmer JE: Systemic candidiasis in four foals. J Am Vet Med Assoc 205:464–466, 1994. PUBMED Abstract
  50. Wilson WD, Durando MM, Mihalyi JE: The bacteriology of septicaemia as a basis for antibiotic selection in neonatal foals. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Society of Veterinary Perinatology Conference, Cambridge, England, 1990.
  51. Morris DD, Rutkowski J, Lloyd KC: Therapy in two cases of neonatal foal septicaemia and meningitis with cefotaxime sodium. Equine Vet J 19:151–154, 1987. PUBMED Abstract
  52. Henry MM, Morris DD, Lakritz J, et al: Pharmacokinetics of cephradine in neonatal foals after single oral dosing. Equine Vet J 24:242–243, 1992. PUBMED Abstract
  53. Duffee NE, Stang BE, Schaeffer DJ: The pharmacokinetics of cefadroxil over a range of oral doses and animal ages in the foal. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 20:427–433, 1997. PUBMED Abstract
  54. Duffee NE, Christensen JM, Craig AM: The pharmacokinetics of cefadroxil in the foal. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 12:322–326, 1989. PUBMED Abstract
  55. Brown MP, Gronwall R, Kroll WR, et al: Ampicillin trihydrate in foals: serum concentrations and clearance after a single oral dose. Equine Vet J 16:371–373, 1984. PUBMED Abstract
  56. Carrillo NA, Giguere S, Gronwall RR, et al: Disposition of orally administered cefpodoxime proxetil in foals and adult horses and minimum inhibitory concentration of the drug against common bacterial pathogens of horses. Am J Vet Res 66:30–35, 2005. PUBMED Abstract
  57. Davenport CL, Boston RC, Richardson DW: Effects of enrofloxacin and magnesium deficiency on matrix metabolism in equine articular cartilage. Am J Vet Res 62:160–166, 2001. PUBMED Abstract
  58. Vivrette SL, Bostian A, Bermingham E, et al: Quinolone-induced arthropathy in neonatal foals. In Proceedings of the 47th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, Denver, 2001, pp 376–367.
  59. Baskett A, Barton MH, Norton N, et al: Effect of pentoxifylline, flunixin meglumine, and their combination on a model of endotoxemia in horses. Am J Vet Res 58:1291–1299, 1997. PUBMED Abstract
  60. Durando MM, MacKay RJ, Linda S, et al: Effects of polymyxin B and Salmonella typhimurium antiserum on horses given endotoxin intravenously. Am J Vet Res 55:921–927, 1994. PUBMED Abstract
  61. Morresey PR, MacKay RJ: Endotoxin-neutralizing activity of polymyxin B in blood after IV administration in horses. Am J Vet Res 67:642–647, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  62. Haque K, Mohan P: Pentoxifylline for neonatal sepsis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4:CD004205, 2003. PUBMED Abstract
  63. Staubach KH, Schroder J, Stuber F, et al: Effect of pentoxifylline in severe sepsis: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Arch Surg 133:94–100, 1998. PUBMED Abstract
  64. Hendrix DVH, Ward DA, Guglick MA: Disseminated candidiasis in a neonatal foal with keratomycosis as the initial sign. Vet Ophthalmol 7:10–13, 1997.
  65. Hilton H, Galuppo L, Puchalski SM, et al: Successful treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a neonatal foal. J Vet Intern Med 23:375–378, 2009. PUBMED Abstract
  66. Palmer JE: Fluid therapy in the neonate: not your mother's fluid space. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 20:63–75, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  67. Corley KT: Inotropes and vasopressors in adults and foals. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 20:77–106, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  68. Magdesian KG: Monitoring the critically ill equine patient. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 20:11–39, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  69. Sanchez LC, Lester GD, Merritt AM: Effect of ranitidine on intragastric pH in clinically normal neonatal foals. J Am Vet Med Assoc 212:1407–1412, 1998. PUBMED Abstract
  70. Sanchez LC, Lester GD, Merritt AM: Intragastric pH in critically ill neonatal foals and the effect of ranitidine. J Am Vet Med Assoc 218:907–911, 2001. PUBMED Abstract
  71. Dinsmore JE, Jackson RJ, Smith SD: The protective role of gastric acidity in neonatal bacterial translocation. J Pediatr Surg 32:1014–1016, 1997 (abstract). PUBMED Abstract
  72. Furr M, Cohen ND, Axon JE, et al: Treatment with histamine-type 2 receptor antagonists and omeprazole increase the risk of diarrhoea in neonatal foals treated in intensive care units. Equine Vet J Suppl 41:80–86, 2012. PUBMED Abstract
  73. Sanchez LC, Murray MJ, Merritt AM: Effect of omeprazole paste on intragastric pH in clinically normal neonatal foals. Am J Vet Res 65:1039–1041, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  74. Javsicas LH, Sanchez LC: The effect of omeprazole paste on intragastric pH in clinically ill neonatal foals. Equine Vet J 40:41–44, 2008. PUBMED Abstract
  75. Ryan CA, Sanchez LC, Giguere S, et al: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of pantoprazole in clinically normal neonatal foals. Equine Vet J 37:336–341, 2005. PUBMED Abstract
  76. Freeman L, Paradis MR: Evaluating the effectiveness of equine neonatal care. Vet Med 87:921–926, 1992.
  77. Gayle JM, Cohen ND, Chaffin MK: Factors associated with survival in septicemic foals: 65 cases (1988–1995). J Vet Intern Med 12:140–146, 1998. PUBMED Abstract
  78. Frederick J, Giguere S, Sanchez LC: Infectious agents detected in the feces of diarrheic foals: a retrospective study of 233 cases (2003-2008). J Vet Intern Med 23:1254–1260, 2009. PUBMED Abstract
  79. Hollis AR, Wilkins PA, Palmer JE, et al: Bacteremia in equine neonatal diarrhea: a retrospective study (1990-2007). J Vet Intern Med, 2008. PUBMED Abstract
  80. Kablack KA, Embertson RM, Bernard WV, et al: Uroperitoneum in the hospitalized equine neonate: retrospective study of 31 cases, 1988-1997. Equine Vet J 32:505–508, 2000. PUBMED Abstract
  81. Paradis MR: Septic arthritis in the equine neonate: a retrospective study. In Proceedings of the 9th Annual American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Forum, New Orleans, 1991, pp 458–489.
  82. Triplett EA, O'Brien RT, Wilson DG, et al: Thrombosis of the brachial artery in a foal. J Vet Intern Med 10:330–332, 1996. PUBMED Abstract
  83. Forrest LJ, Cooley AJ, Darien BJ: Digital arterial thrombosis in a septicemic foal. J Vet Intern Med 13:382–385, 1999. PUBMED Abstract
  84. Brianceau P, Divers TJ: Acute thrombosis of limb arteries in horses with sepsis: five cases (1988-1998). Equine Vet J 33:105–109, 2001. PUBMED Abstract
  85. Moore LA, Johnson PJ, Bailey KL: Aorto-iliac thrombosis in a foal. Vet Rec 142:459–462, 1998. PUBMED Abstract
  86. Brewer BD, Koterba AM: Bacterial isolates and susceptibility patterns in foals in a neonatal intensive-care unit. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 12:1773–1781, 1990.
  87. Axon J, Palmer J, Wilkins P: Short- and long-term athletic outcome of neonatal intensive care unit survivors. In Proceedings of the 45th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, Denver, 1999, pp 224–225.
  88. Corley KTT, Corley MMB: Hospital treatment as a foal does not adversely affect future sales performance in Thoroughbred horses. Equine Vet J 44:87–90, 2012.
  89. Bryant JE, Bernard W, Wilson WD, et al: Race earnings as an indicator of future performance in neonatal foals treated for neurological disorders. In Proceedings of the 40th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, Denver, 1994, p 198.
  90. Ainsworth DM, Eicker SW, Yeagar AE, et al: Associations between physical examination, laboratory, and radiographic findings and outcome and subsequent racing performance of foals with Rhodococcus equi infection: 115 cases (1984-1992). J Am Vet Med Assoc 213:510–515, 1998. PUBMED Abstract
  91. Mullany LC, Darmstadt GL, Tielsch JM: Role of antimicrobial applications to the umbilical cord in neonates to prevent bacterial colonization and infection: a review of the evidence. Pediatr Infect Dis J 22:996–1002, 2003. PUBMED Abstract
  92. Bucki EP, Giguere S, Macpherson M, et al: Pharmacokinetics of once-daily amikacin in healthy foals and therapeutic drug monitoring in hospitalized equine neonates. J Vet Intern Med 18:728–733, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  93. Magdesian KG, Wilson WD, Mihalyi J: Pharmacokinetics of a high dose of amikacin administered at extended intervals to neonatal foals. Am J Vet Res 65:473–479, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  94. Burton AJ, Giguere S, Al Hamhoom Y, et al: Effect of age on the pharmacokinetics of a single daily dose of gentamicin sulphate in foals. J Vet Int Med 26(3):734–735. 2012. PUBMED Abstract
  95. Gardner SY, Sweeney RW, Divers TJ: Pharmacokinetics of cefotaxime in neonatal pony foals. Am J Vet Res 54:576–579, 1993. PUBMED Abstract
  96. Meyer JC, Brown MP, Gronwall RR, et al: Pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur sodium in neonatal foals after intramuscular injection. Equine Vet J 24:485–486, 1992. PUBMED Abstract
  97. Hall TL, Tell LA, Wetzlich SE, et al: Pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur sodium and ceftiofur crystalline free acid in neonatal foals. J Vet Pharmaco Ther 34:403–409, 2011. PUBMED Abstract